Introduction

This page contains Supplementary Materials for the End-to-End Google Earth Engine course. It is a collection useful scripts and code snippets that can be adapted for your projects.

Please visit the End-to-End Google Earth Engine course page for the full course material.

Advanced Supervised Classification Techniques

Hyperparameter Tuning

A recommended best practice for improving the accuracy of your machine learning model is to tune different parameters. For example, when using the ee.Classifier.smileRandomForest() classifier, we must specify the Number of Trees. We know that higher number of trees result in more computation requirement, but it doesn’t necessarily result in better results. Instead of guessing, we programmatically try a range of values and choose the smallest value possible that results in the highest accuracy.

Supervised Classification Output

Supervised Classification Output

Open in Code Editor ↗

var s2 = ee.ImageCollection("COPERNICUS/S2_SR_HARMONIZED");
var basin = ee.FeatureCollection("WWF/HydroSHEDS/v1/Basins/hybas_7");
var gcp = ee.FeatureCollection("users/ujavalgandhi/e2e/arkavathy_gcps");
var alos = ee.Image("JAXA/ALOS/AW3D30/V2_2");


var arkavathy = basin.filter(ee.Filter.eq('HYBAS_ID', 4071139640))
var boundary = arkavathy.geometry()
var rgbVis = {
  min: 0.0,
  max: 3000,
  bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2'],
};
// Function to remove cloud and snow pixels from Sentinel-2 SR image

function maskCloudAndShadowsSR(image) {
  var cloudProb = image.select('MSK_CLDPRB');
  var snowProb = image.select('MSK_SNWPRB');
  var cloud = cloudProb.lt(10);
  var scl = image.select('SCL'); 
  var shadow = scl.eq(3); // 3 = cloud shadow
  var cirrus = scl.eq(10); // 10 = cirrus
  // Cloud probability less than 10% or cloud shadow classification
  var mask = cloud.and(cirrus.neq(1)).and(shadow.neq(1));
  return image.updateMask(mask);
}


var filtered = s2
.filter(ee.Filter.lt('CLOUDY_PIXEL_PERCENTAGE', 30))
  .filter(ee.Filter.date('2019-01-01', '2020-01-01'))
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(boundary))
  .map(maskCloudAndShadowsSR)
  .select('B.*')

var composite = filtered.median().clip(boundary) 

var visParams = {bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2'], min: 0, max: 3000, gamma: 1.2};
Map.centerObject(boundary)
Map.addLayer(composite, visParams, 'RGB');

var addIndices = function(image) {
  var ndvi = image.normalizedDifference(['B8', 'B4']).rename(['ndvi']);
  var ndbi = image.normalizedDifference(['B11', 'B8']).rename(['ndbi']);
  var mndwi = image.normalizedDifference(['B3', 'B11']).rename(['mndwi']); 
  var bsi = image.expression(
      '(( X + Y ) - (A + B)) /(( X + Y ) + (A + B)) ', {
        'X': image.select('B11'), //swir1
        'Y': image.select('B4'),  //red
        'A': image.select('B8'), // nir
        'B': image.select('B2'), // blue
  }).rename('bsi');
  return image.addBands(ndvi).addBands(ndbi).addBands(mndwi).addBands(bsi)
}

var composite = addIndices(composite);


// Calculate Slope and Elevation
var elev = alos.select('AVE_DSM').rename('elev');
var slope = ee.Terrain.slope(alos.select('AVE_DSM')).rename('slope');

var composite = composite.addBands(elev).addBands(slope);



// Normalize the image 

// Machine learning algorithms work best on images when all features have
// the same range

// Function to Normalize Image
// Pixel Values should be between 0 and 1
// Formula is (x - xmin) / (xmax - xmin)
//************************************************************************** 
function normalize(image){
  var bandNames = image.bandNames();
  // Compute min and max of the image
  var minDict = image.reduceRegion({
    reducer: ee.Reducer.min(),
    geometry: boundary,
    scale: 20,
    maxPixels: 1e9,
    bestEffort: true,
    tileScale: 16
  });
  var maxDict = image.reduceRegion({
    reducer: ee.Reducer.max(),
    geometry: boundary,
    scale: 20,
    maxPixels: 1e9,
    bestEffort: true,
    tileScale: 16
  });
  var mins = ee.Image.constant(minDict.values(bandNames));
  var maxs = ee.Image.constant(maxDict.values(bandNames));

  var normalized = image.subtract(mins).divide(maxs.subtract(mins))
  return normalized
}

var composite = normalize(composite);
// Add a random column and split the GCPs into training and validation set
var gcp = gcp.randomColumn()

// This being a simpler classification, we take 60% points
// for validation. Normal recommended ratio is
// 70% training, 30% validation
var trainingGcp = gcp.filter(ee.Filter.lt('random', 0.6));
var validationGcp = gcp.filter(ee.Filter.gte('random', 0.6));
// Overlay the point on the image to get training data.
var training = composite.sampleRegions({
  collection: trainingGcp,
  properties: ['landcover'],
  scale: 10,
  tileScale: 16
});
print(training)
// Train a classifier.
var classifier = ee.Classifier.smileRandomForest(50)
.train({
  features: training,  
  classProperty: 'landcover',
  inputProperties: composite.bandNames()
});

//************************************************************************** 
// Feature Importance
//************************************************************************** 

// Run .explain() to see what the classifer looks like
print(classifier.explain())

// Calculate variable importance
var importance = ee.Dictionary(classifier.explain().get('importance'))

// Calculate relative importance
var sum = importance.values().reduce(ee.Reducer.sum())

var relativeImportance = importance.map(function(key, val) {
   return (ee.Number(val).multiply(100)).divide(sum)
  })
print(relativeImportance)

// Create a FeatureCollection so we can chart it
var importanceFc = ee.FeatureCollection([
  ee.Feature(null, relativeImportance)
])

var chart = ui.Chart.feature.byProperty({
  features: importanceFc
}).setOptions({
      title: 'Feature Importance',
      vAxis: {title: 'Importance'},
      hAxis: {title: 'Feature'}
  })
print(chart)

//************************************************************************** 
// Hyperparameter Tuning
//************************************************************************** 

var test = composite.sampleRegions({
  collection: validationGcp,
  properties: ['landcover'],
  scale: 10,
  tileScale: 16
});


// Tune the numberOfTrees parameter.
var numTreesList = ee.List.sequence(10, 150, 10);

var accuracies = numTreesList.map(function(numTrees) {
  var classifier = ee.Classifier.smileRandomForest(numTrees)
      .train({
        features: training,
        classProperty: 'landcover',
        inputProperties: composite.bandNames()
      });

  // Here we are classifying a table instead of an image
  // Classifiers work on both images and tables
  return test
    .classify(classifier)
    .errorMatrix('landcover', 'classification')
    .accuracy();
});

var chart = ui.Chart.array.values({
  array: ee.Array(accuracies),
  axis: 0,
  xLabels: numTreesList
  }).setOptions({
      title: 'Hyperparameter Tuning for the numberOfTrees Parameters',
      vAxis: {title: 'Validation Accuracy'},
      hAxis: {title: 'Number of Tress', gridlines: {count: 15}}
  });
print(chart)

// Tuning Multiple Parameters
// We can tune many parameters together using
// nested map() functions
// Let's tune 2 parameters
// numTrees and bagFraction 
var numTreesList = ee.List.sequence(10, 150, 10);
var bagFractionList = ee.List.sequence(0.1, 0.9, 0.1);

var accuracies = numTreesList.map(function(numTrees) {
  return bagFractionList.map(function(bagFraction) {
     var classifier = ee.Classifier.smileRandomForest({
       numberOfTrees: numTrees,
       bagFraction: bagFraction
     })
      .train({
        features: training,
        classProperty: 'landcover',
        inputProperties: composite.bandNames()
      });

    // Here we are classifying a table instead of an image
    // Classifiers work on both images and tables
    var accuracy = test
      .classify(classifier)
      .errorMatrix('landcover', 'classification')
      .accuracy();
    return ee.Feature(null, {'accuracy': accuracy,
      'numberOfTrees': numTrees,
      'bagFraction': bagFraction})
  })
}).flatten()
var resultFc = ee.FeatureCollection(accuracies)

// Export the result as CSV
Export.table.toDrive({
  collection: resultFc,
  description: 'Multiple_Parameter_Tuning_Results',
  folder: 'earthengine',
  fileNamePrefix: 'numtrees_bagfraction',
  fileFormat: 'CSV'});

// Alternatively we can automatically pick the parameters
// that result in the highest accuracy
var resultFcSorted = resultFc.sort('accuracy', false);
var highestAccuracyFeature = resultFcSorted.first();
var highestAccuracy = highestAccuracyFeature.getNumber('accuracy');
var optimalNumTrees = highestAccuracyFeature.getNumber('numberOfTrees');
var optimalBagFraction = highestAccuracyFeature.getNumber('bagFraction');

// Use the optimal parameters in a model and perform final classification
var optimalModel = ee.Classifier.smileRandomForest({
  numberOfTrees: optimalNumTrees,
  bagFraction: optimalBagFraction
}).train({
  features: training,  
  classProperty: 'landcover',
  inputProperties: composite.bandNames()
});

var finalClassification = composite.classify(optimalModel);

// Printing or Displaying the image may time out as it requires
// extensive computation to find the optimal parameters

// Export the 'finalClassification' to Asset and import the
// result to view it.

Post-Processing Classification Results

Supervised classification results often contain salt-and-pepper noise caused by mis-classified pixels. It is usually preferable to apply some post-processing techniques to remove such noise. The following script contains the code for two popular techniques for post-processing classification results.

  • Using un-supervised clustering to replacing classified value by majority value in each cluster.
  • Replacing isolated pixels with surrounding value with a majority filter.

Remember that the neighborhood methods are scale-dependent so the results will change as you zoom in/out. Export the results at the desired scale to see the effect of post-processing.

Open in Code Editor ↗

// Sentinel-2 Median Composite
var composite = ee.Image("users/ujavalgandhi/e2e/arkavathy_2019_composite");
Map.addLayer(composite, {min: 0, max: 0.3,   bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2']}, 'RGB Composite');

// Raw Supervised Classification Results
var classified = ee.Image("users/ujavalgandhi/e2e/arkavathy_final_classification");
var palette = ['#cc6d8f', '#ffc107', '#1e88e5', '#004d40' ];
Map.addLayer(classified, {min: 0, max: 3, palette: palette}, 'Original');

Map.centerObject(classified, 10)


//************************************************************************** 
// Post process by clustering
//************************************************************************** 

// Cluster using Unsupervised Clustering methods
var seeds = ee.Algorithms.Image.Segmentation.seedGrid(5);

var snic = ee.Algorithms.Image.Segmentation.SNIC({
  image: composite.select('B.*'), 
  compactness: 0,
  connectivity: 4,
  neighborhoodSize: 10,
  size: 2,
  seeds: seeds
})
var clusters = snic.select('clusters')

// Assign class to each cluster based on 'majority' voting (using ee.Reducer.mode()
var smoothed = classified.addBands(clusters);

var clusterMajority = smoothed.reduceConnectedComponents({
  reducer: ee.Reducer.mode(),
  labelBand: 'clusters'
});
Map.addLayer(clusterMajority, {min: 0, max: 3, palette: palette}, 
  'Processed using Clusters');



//************************************************************************** 
// Post process by replacing isolated pixels with surrounding value
//************************************************************************** 

// count patch sizes
var patchsize = classified.connectedPixelCount(40, false);

// run a majority filter
var filtered = classified.focal_mode({
    radius: 10,
    kernelType: 'square',
    units: 'meters',
}); 
  
// updated image with majority filter where patch size is small
var connectedClassified =  classified.where(patchsize.lt(25),filtered);
Map.addLayer(connectedClassified, {min: 0, max: 3, palette: palette}, 
  'Processed using Connected Pixels');

Principal Component Analysis (PCA)

PCA is a very useful technique in improving your supervised classification results. This is a statistical technique that compresses data from a large number of bands into fewer uncorrelated bands. You can run PCA on your image and add the first few (typically 3) principal component bands to the original composite before sampling training points. In the example below, you will notice that 97% of the variance from the 13-band original image is captured in the 3-band PCA image. This sends a stronger signal to the classifier and improves accuracy by allowing it to distinguish different classes better.

Open in Code Editor ↗

// Script showing how to do Principal Component Analysis on images
var composite = ee.Image("users/ujavalgandhi/e2e/arkavathy_2019_composite");
var boundary = ee.FeatureCollection("users/ujavalgandhi/e2e/arkavathy_boundary");

print('Input Composite', composite);
Map.centerObject(composite)
Map.addLayer(composite, {bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2'], min: 0, max: 0.3, gamma: 1.2}, 'RGB');

// Define the geometry and scale parameters
var geometry = boundary.geometry();
var scale = 20;

// Run the PCA function
var pca = PCA(composite)

// Extract the properties of the pca image
var variance = pca.toDictionary()
print('Variance of Principal Components', variance)

// As you see from the printed results, ~97% of the variance
// from the original image is captured in the first 3 principal components
// We select those and discard others
var pca = PCA(composite).select(['pc1', 'pc2', 'pc3'])
print('First 3 PCA Bands', pca);

// PCA computation is expensive and can time out when displaying on the map
// Export the results and import them back
Export.image.toAsset({
  image: pca,
  description: 'Principal_Components_Image',
  assetId: 'users/ujavalgandhi/e2e/arkavathy_pca',
  region: geometry,
  scale: scale,
  maxPixels: 1e10})
// Once the export finishes, import the asset and display
var pcaImported = ee.Image('users/ujavalgandhi/e2e/arkavathy_pca')
var pcaVisParams = {bands: ['pc1', 'pc2', 'pc3'], min: -2, max: 2};

Map.addLayer(pcaImported, pcaVisParams, 'Principal Components');


//************************************************************************** 
// Function to calculate Principal Components
// Code adapted from https://developers.google.com/earth-engine/guides/arrays_eigen_analysis
//************************************************************************** 
function PCA(maskedImage){
  var image = maskedImage.unmask()
  var scale = scale;
  var region = geometry;
  var bandNames = image.bandNames();
  // Mean center the data to enable a faster covariance reducer
  // and an SD stretch of the principal components.
  var meanDict = image.reduceRegion({
    reducer: ee.Reducer.mean(),
    geometry: region,
    scale: scale,
    maxPixels: 1e13,
    tileScale: 16
  });
  var means = ee.Image.constant(meanDict.values(bandNames));
  var centered = image.subtract(means);
  // This helper function returns a list of new band names.
  var getNewBandNames = function(prefix) {
    var seq = ee.List.sequence(1, bandNames.length());
    return seq.map(function(b) {
      return ee.String(prefix).cat(ee.Number(b).int());
    });
  };
  // This function accepts mean centered imagery, a scale and
  // a region in which to perform the analysis.  It returns the
  // Principal Components (PC) in the region as a new image.
  var getPrincipalComponents = function(centered, scale, region) {
    // Collapse the bands of the image into a 1D array per pixel.
    var arrays = centered.toArray();
    
    // Compute the covariance of the bands within the region.
    var covar = arrays.reduceRegion({
      reducer: ee.Reducer.centeredCovariance(),
      geometry: region,
      scale: scale,
      maxPixels: 1e13,
      tileScale: 16
    });

    // Get the 'array' covariance result and cast to an array.
    // This represents the band-to-band covariance within the region.
    var covarArray = ee.Array(covar.get('array'));

    // Perform an eigen analysis and slice apart the values and vectors.
    var eigens = covarArray.eigen();

    // This is a P-length vector of Eigenvalues.
    var eigenValues = eigens.slice(1, 0, 1);
    
    // Compute Percentage Variance of each component
    // This will allow us to decide how many components capture
    // most of the variance in the input
    var eigenValuesList = eigenValues.toList().flatten()
    var total = eigenValuesList.reduce(ee.Reducer.sum())

    var percentageVariance = eigenValuesList.map(function(item) {
      var component = eigenValuesList.indexOf(item).add(1).format('%02d')
      var variance = ee.Number(item).divide(total).multiply(100).format('%.2f')
      return ee.List([component, variance])
    })
    // Create a dictionary that will be used to set properties on final image
    var varianceDict = ee.Dictionary(percentageVariance.flatten())
    // This is a PxP matrix with eigenvectors in rows.
    var eigenVectors = eigens.slice(1, 1);
    // Convert the array image to 2D arrays for matrix computations.
    var arrayImage = arrays.toArray(1);

    // Left multiply the image array by the matrix of eigenvectors.
    var principalComponents = ee.Image(eigenVectors).matrixMultiply(arrayImage);

    // Turn the square roots of the Eigenvalues into a P-band image.
    // Call abs() to turn negative eigenvalues to positive before
    // taking the square root
    var sdImage = ee.Image(eigenValues.abs().sqrt())
      .arrayProject([0]).arrayFlatten([getNewBandNames('sd')]);

    // Turn the PCs into a P-band image, normalized by SD.
    return principalComponents
      // Throw out an an unneeded dimension, [[]] -> [].
      .arrayProject([0])
      // Make the one band array image a multi-band image, [] -> image.
      .arrayFlatten([getNewBandNames('pc')])
      // Normalize the PCs by their SDs.
      .divide(sdImage)
      .set(varianceDict);
  };
  var pcImage = getPrincipalComponents(centered, scale, region);
  return pcImage.mask(maskedImage.mask());
}

Multi-temporal Composites for Crop Classification

Crop classification is a difficult problem. A useful technique that aids in clear distinction of crops is to account for crop phenology. This technique can be applied to detect a specific type of crop or distinguish crops from other forms of vegetation. You can create composite images for different periods of the cropping cycle and create a stacked image to be used for classification. This allows the classifier to learn the temporal pattern and detect pixels that exhibit similar patterns.

Capturing Crop Phenology through Seasonal Composites

Capturing Crop Phenology through Seasonal Composites

Open in Code Editor ↗

var s2 = ee.ImageCollection("COPERNICUS/S2_SR_HARMONIZED")
var basin = ee.FeatureCollection("WWF/HydroSHEDS/v1/Basins/hybas_7")
var arkavathy = basin.filter(ee.Filter.eq('HYBAS_ID', 4071139640))
var boundary = arkavathy.geometry()
Map.centerObject(boundary, 11)

// Function to remove cloud pixels from Sentinel-2 SR image 
function maskCloudAndShadowsSR(image) {
  var cloudProb = image.select('MSK_CLDPRB');
  var snowProb = image.select('MSK_SNWPRB');
  var cloud = cloudProb.lt(10);
  var scl = image.select('SCL'); 
  var shadow = scl.eq(3); // 3 = cloud shadow
  var cirrus = scl.eq(10); // 10 = cirrus
  // Cloud probability less than 10% or cloud shadow classification
  var mask = cloud.and(cirrus.neq(1)).and(shadow.neq(1));
  return image.updateMask(mask).divide(10000)
    .copyProperties(image, ['system:time_start']);
}


var filtered = s2
  .filter(ee.Filter.lt('CLOUDY_PIXEL_PERCENTAGE', 30))
  .filter(ee.Filter.date('2019-01-01', '2020-01-01'))
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(boundary))
  .map(maskCloudAndShadowsSR)
// There are 3 distinct crop seasons in the area of interest
// Jan-March = Winter (Rabi) Crops
// April-June  = Summer Crops / Harvest
// July-December = Monsoon (Kharif) Crops
var cropCalendar = ee.List([[1,3], [4,6], [7,12]])

// We create different composites for each season
var createSeasonComposites = function(months) {
  var startMonth = ee.List(months).get(0)
  var endMonth = ee.List(months).get(1)
  var monthFilter = ee.Filter.calendarRange(startMonth, endMonth, 'month')
  var seasonFiltered = filtered.filter(monthFilter)
  var composite = seasonFiltered.median()
  return composite.select('B.*').clip(boundary)
}

var compositeList = cropCalendar.map(createSeasonComposites)

var rabi = ee.Image(compositeList.get(0))
var harvest = ee.Image(compositeList.get(1))
var kharif = ee.Image(compositeList.get(2))

var visParams = {bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2'], min: 0, max: 0.3, gamma: 1.2};
Map.addLayer(rabi, visParams, 'Rabi')
Map.addLayer(harvest, visParams, 'Harvest')
Map.addLayer(kharif, visParams, 'Kharif')

// Create a stacked image with composites from all seasons
// This multi-temporal image is able capture the crop phenology
// Classifier will be able to detect crop-pixels from non-crop pixels
var composite = rabi.addBands(harvest).addBands(kharif)

// This is a 36-band image
// Use this image for sampling training points for
// to train a crop classifier 
print(composite)

Computing Correlation

A useful technique to aid crop classification is to model the correlation between precipitation and changes in vegetation. This allows the model to capture differentiated responses to rainfall (i.e. raid-fed crops vs permanent forests). We first prepare an image collection where each image consists of 2 bands - cumulative rainfall for each month and average NDVI for the next month. This will create 11 images per year which show precipitation and 1-month lagged NDVI at each pixels. The collection is then reduced using the ee.Reducer.pearsonsCorrelation() which outputs a correlation band. Positive values will show regions where precipitation caused an increase in NDVI. Adding this band to your input image for classification will greatly aid the classifier in separating different types of vegetation.

Open in Code Editor ↗

// Calculate Rainfall-NDVI Correlation

// We want to know whether there exists a correlation between
// rainfall and NDVI
// We build a collection containing monthly total rainfall for a year
// and the next month's average NDVI.
// We then use ee.Reducer.pearsonsCorrelation() to compute pixel-wise
// correlation between rainfall and NDVI response.

// Positive values will indicate vegetation growth in response to
// precipitation and generally rainfed agriculture.

var geometry = ee.Geometry.Point([75.71168046831512, 13.30751919691132]);
Map.centerObject(geometry, 10)
var s2 = ee.ImageCollection("COPERNICUS/S2_SR_HARMONIZED");

var rgbVis = {
  min: 0.0,
  max: 3000,
  bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2'],
};


// Function to remove cloud and snow pixels from Sentinel-2 SR image
function maskCloudAndShadowsSR(image) {
  var cloudProb = image.select('MSK_CLDPRB');
  var snowProb = image.select('MSK_SNWPRB');
  var cloud = cloudProb.lt(5);
  var snow = snowProb.lt(5);
  var scl = image.select('SCL'); 
  var shadow = scl.eq(3); // 3 = cloud shadow
  var cirrus = scl.eq(10); // 10 = cirrus
  // Cloud probability less than 5% or cloud shadow classification
  var mask = cloud.and(cirrus.neq(1)).and(shadow.neq(1));
  return image.updateMask(mask);
}


// Write a function that computes NDVI for an image and adds it as a band
function addNDVI(image) {
  var ndvi = image.normalizedDifference(['B8', 'B4']).rename('ndvi');
  return image.addBands(ndvi);
}

var s2Filtered = s2
  .filter(ee.Filter.date('2020-01-01', '2021-01-01'))
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry))
  .map(maskCloudAndShadowsSR)
  .map(addNDVI)


var composite = s2Filtered.median()
Map.addLayer(composite, rgbVis, 'Composite')  


// Rainfall
var chirps = ee.ImageCollection("UCSB-CHG/CHIRPS/PENTAD");
var chirpsFiltered = chirps
  .filter(ee.Filter.date('2020-01-01', '2021-01-01'))


// Create a collection of monthly images
var months = ee.List.sequence(1, 11)

var byMonth = months.map(function(month) {
    // Total monthly rainfall
    var monthlyRain = chirpsFiltered
      .filter(ee.Filter.calendarRange(month, month, 'month'))
    var totalRain = monthlyRain.sum()
    // Next month's average NDVI
    var nextMonth = ee.Number(month).add(1)
    var monthly = s2Filtered
      .filter(ee.Filter.calendarRange(nextMonth, nextMonth, 'month'))
    var medianComposite = monthly.median()
  
    return totalRain.addBands(medianComposite).set({'month': month})
})
var monthlyCol = ee.ImageCollection.fromImages(byMonth);

// Display Composites
var julImage = ee.Image(monthlyCol.filter(ee.Filter.eq('month', 7)).first())
var augImage = ee.Image(monthlyCol.filter(ee.Filter.eq('month', 8)).first())
var sepImage = ee.Image(monthlyCol.filter(ee.Filter.eq('month', 9)).first())

Map.addLayer(julImage, rgbVis, 'July', false)
Map.addLayer(augImage, rgbVis, 'August', false)
Map.addLayer(sepImage, rgbVis, 'September', false)


var correlationCol = monthlyCol.select(['precipitation', 'ndvi'])

var correlation = correlationCol.reduce(ee.Reducer.pearsonsCorrelation());

var positive = correlation.select('correlation').gt(0.5)

Map.addLayer(correlation.select('correlation'), 
  {min:-1, max:1, palette: ['red', 'white', 'green']}, 'Correlation');
Map.addLayer(positive.selfMask(), 
  {palette: ['yellow']}, 'Positive Correlation', false);   

Calculating Band Correlation Matrix

When selecting features for your machine learning model, it is important to have features which are not correlated with each other. Correlated features makes it difficult for machine learning models to discover the interactions between different features. A commonly used technique to aid in removing redundant variables is to create a Correlation Matrix. In Earth Engine, you can take a multi-band image and calculate pair-wise correlation between the bands using either ee.Reducer.pearsonsCorrelation() or ee.Reducer.spearmansCorrelation(). The correlation matrix helps you identify variables that are redundant and can be removed. The code below also shows how to export the table of features that can be used in other software to compute correlation.

Correlation Matrix created in Python using data exported from GEE

Correlation Matrix created in Python using data exported from GEE

Open in Code Editor ↗

// Calculate Pair-wise Correlation Between Bands of an Image

// We take a multi-band composite image created in the previous sections
var composite = ee.Image('users/ujavalgandhi/e2e/arkavathy_multiband_composite');
var visParams = {bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2'], min: 0, max: 3000, gamma: 1.2};
Map.addLayer(composite, visParams, 'RGB');

var basin = ee.FeatureCollection('WWF/HydroSHEDS/v1/Basins/hybas_7');
var arkavathy = basin.filter(ee.Filter.eq('HYBAS_ID', 4071139640));
var geometry = arkavathy.geometry();
Map.centerObject(geometry);

// This image has 18 bands and we want to compute correlation between them.
// Get the band names
// These bands will be the input variables to the model
var bands = composite.bandNames();
print(bands);


// Generate random points to sample from the image
var numPoints = 5000
var samples = composite.sample({ 
  region: geometry,
  scale: 10, 
  numPixels: numPoints,
  tileScale: 16
});
print(samples.first());

// Calculate pairwise-correlation between each pair of bands
// Use ee.Reducer.pearsonsCorrelation() for Pearson's Correlation
// Use ee.Reducer.spearmansCorrelation() for Spearman's Correlation
var pairwiseCorr = ee.FeatureCollection(bands.map(function(i){
  return bands.map(function(j){
    var stats = samples.reduceColumns({
      reducer: ee.Reducer.pearsonsCorrelation(),
      selectors: [i,j]
    });
    var bandNames = ee.String(i).cat('_').cat(j);
    return ee.Feature(null, {'correlation': stats.get('correlation'), 'band': bandNames});  
  });
}).flatten());

// Export the table as a CSV file
Export.table.toDrive({
  collection: pairwiseCorr,
  description: 'Pairwise_Correlation',
  folder: 'earthengine',
  fileNamePrefix: 'pairwise_correlation',
  fileFormat: 'CSV',
});

// You can also export the sampled points and calculate correlation
// in Python or R. Reference Python implementation is at
// https://courses.spatialthoughts.com/python-dataviz.html#feature-correlation-matrix
Export.table.toDrive({
  collection: samples,
  description: 'Feature_Sample_Data',
  folder: 'earthengine',
  fileNamePrefix: 'feature_sample_data',
  fileFormat: 'CSV',
  selectors: bands.getInfo()
});

Calculating Area by Class

This code snippet shows how to use a Grouped Reducer to calculate area covered by each class in a classified image. It also shows how to use the ui.Chart.feature.byProperty() function to create a column chart and the ui.Chart.feature.byFeature() function to create a pie chart with areas of each class.

Open in Code Editor ↗

var classified = ee.Image("users/ujavalgandhi/e2e/bangalore_classified");
var bangalore = ee.FeatureCollection("users/ujavalgandhi/public/bangalore_boundary");
var geometry = bangalore.geometry();

var palette = ['#cc6d8f', '#ffc107', '#1e88e5', '#004d40' ];
Map.addLayer(classified, {min: 0, max: 3, palette: palette}, '2019');

// We can calculate the areas of all classes in a single pass
// using a Grouped Reducer. Learn more at 
// https://spatialthoughts.com/2020/06/19/calculating-area-gee/

// First create a 2 band image with the area image and the classified image
// Divide the area image by 1e6 so area results are in Sq Km
var areaImage = ee.Image.pixelArea().divide(1e6).addBands(classified);

// Calculate areas
var areas = areaImage.reduceRegion({
      reducer: ee.Reducer.sum().group({
      groupField: 1,
      groupName: 'classification',
    }),
    geometry: geometry,
    scale: 10,
    maxPixels: 1e10
    }); 
 
var classAreas = ee.List(areas.get('groups'))

// Process results to extract the areas and
// create a FeatureCollection

// We can define a dictionary with class names
var classNames = ee.Dictionary({
  '0': 'urban',
  '1': 'bare',
  '2': 'water',
  '3': 'vegetation'
})

var classAreas = classAreas.map(function(item) {
  var areaDict = ee.Dictionary(item)
  var classNumber = ee.Number(areaDict.get('classification')).format();
  var className = classNames.get(classNumber);
  var area = ee.Number(
    areaDict.get('sum'))
  return ee.Feature(null, {'class': classNumber, 'class_name': className, 'area': area})
})

var classAreaFc = ee.FeatureCollection(classAreas);

// We can now chart the resulting FeatureCollection
// If your area is large, it is advisable to first Export
// the FeatureCollection as an Asset and import it once
// the export is finished.
// Let's create a Bar Chart
var areaChart = ui.Chart.feature.byProperty({
  features: classAreaFc,
  xProperties: ['area'],
  seriesProperty: 'class_name',
}).setChartType('ColumnChart')
  .setOptions({
    hAxis: {title: 'Classes'},
    vAxis: {title: 'Area Km^2'},
    title: 'Area by class',
    series: {
      0: { color: '#cc6d8f' },
      1: { color: '#ffc107' },
      2: { color: '#1e88e5' },
      3: { color: '#004d40' }
    }
  });
print(areaChart); 

// We can also create a Pie-Chart
var areaChart = ui.Chart.feature.byFeature({
  features: classAreaFc,
  xProperty: 'class_name',
  yProperties: ['area']
}).setChartType('PieChart')
  .setOptions({
    hAxis: {title: 'Classes'},
    vAxis: {title: 'Area Km^2'},
    title: 'Area by class',
    colors: palette
  });
print(areaChart); 

Spectral Signature Plots

For supervised classification, it is useful to visualize average spectral responses for each band for each class. Such charts are called Spectral Response Curves or Spectral Signatures. Such charts helps determine separability of classes. If classes have very different signatures, a classifier will be able to separate them well.

We can also plot spectral signatures of all training samples for a class and check the quality of the training dataset. If all training samples show similar signatures - it indicates that you have done a good job of collecting appropriate samples. You can also catch potential outliers from these plots.

These charts provide a qualitative and visual methods for checking separability of classes. For quantitative methods, one can apply measures such as Spectral Distance, Mahalanobis distance, Bhattacharyya distance , Jeffreys-Matusita (JM) distance etc. You can find the code for these in this Stack Exchange answer.

Mean Signatures for All Classes

Mean Signatures for All Classes

Spectral Signatures for All Training Points by Class

Spectral Signatures for All Training Points by Class

Open in Code Editor ↗

var gcps = ee.FeatureCollection("users/ujavalgandhi/e2e/bangalore_gcps");
var composite = ee.Image('users/ujavalgandhi/e2e/bangalore_composite');

// Overlay the point on the image to get bands data.
var training = composite.sampleRegions({
  collection: gcps, 
  properties: ['landcover'], 
  scale: 10
});


// We will create a chart of spectral signature for all classes

// We have multiple GCPs for each class
// Use a grouped reducer to calculate the average reflectance
// for each band for each class

// We have 12 bands so need to repeat the reducer 12 times
// We also need to group the results by class
// So we find the index of the landcover property and use it
// to group the results
var bands = composite.bandNames()
var numBands = bands.length()
var bandsWithClass = bands.add('landcover')
var classIndex = bandsWithClass.indexOf('landcover')

// Use .combine() to get a reducer capable of 
// computing multiple stats on the input
var combinedReducer = ee.Reducer.mean().combine({
  reducer2: ee.Reducer.stdDev(),
  sharedInputs: true})

// Use .repeat() to get a reducer for each band
// We then use .group() to get stats by class
var repeatedReducer = combinedReducer.repeat(numBands).group(classIndex)

var gcpStats = training.reduceColumns({
    selectors: bands.add('landcover'),
    reducer: repeatedReducer,
})

// Result is a dictionary, we do some post-processing to
// extract the results
var groups = ee.List(gcpStats.get('groups'))

var classNames = ee.List(['urban', 'bare', 'water', 'vegetation'])

var fc = ee.FeatureCollection(groups.map(function(item) {
  // Extract the means
  var values = ee.Dictionary(item).get('mean')
  var groupNumber = ee.Dictionary(item).get('group')
  var properties = ee.Dictionary.fromLists(bands, values)
  var withClass = properties.set('class', classNames.get(groupNumber))
  return ee.Feature(null, withClass)
}))

// Chart spectral signatures of training data
var options = {
  title: 'Average Spectral Signatures',
  hAxis: {title: 'Bands'},
  vAxis: {title: 'Reflectance', 
    viewWindowMode:'explicit',
    viewWindow: {
        max:0.6,
        min:0
    }},
  lineWidth: 1,
  pointSize: 4,
  series: {
    0: {color: 'grey'}, 
    1: {color: 'brown'}, 
    2: {color: 'blue'}, 
    3: {color: 'green'},
}};

// Default band names don't sort propertly
// Instead, we can give a dictionary with
// labels for each band in the X-Axis
var bandDescriptions = {
  'B2': 'B02/Blue',
  'B3': 'B03/Green',
  'B4': 'B04/Red',
  'B8': 'B08/NIR',
  'B11': 'B11/SWIR-1',
  'B12': 'B12/SWIR-2'
}
// Create the chart and set options.
var chart = ui.Chart.feature.byProperty({
  features: fc,
  xProperties: bandDescriptions,
  seriesProperty: 'class'
})
.setChartType('ScatterChart')
.setOptions(options);

print(chart)

var classChart = function(landcover, label, color) {
  var options = {
  title: 'Spectral Signatures for ' + label + ' Class',
  hAxis: {title: 'Bands'},
  vAxis: {title: 'Reflectance', 
    viewWindowMode:'explicit',
    viewWindow: {
        max:0.6,
        min:0
    }},
  lineWidth: 1,
  pointSize: 4,
  };

  var fc = training.filter(ee.Filter.eq('landcover', landcover))
  var chart = ui.Chart.feature.byProperty({
  features: fc,
  xProperties: bandDescriptions,
  })
.setChartType('ScatterChart')
.setOptions(options);

print(chart)
}
classChart(0, 'Urban')
classChart(1, 'Bare')
classChart(2, 'Water')
classChart(3, 'Vegetation')

Identify Misclassified GCPs

While doing accuracy assessment, you will see the validation features that were not classified correctly. It is useful to visually see the points that were misclassified. We can use ee.Filter.eq() and ee.Filter.neq() filters to filter the features where the actual and predicted classes were different. The code below shows how to implement this and also use the style() function visualize them effectively.

Open in Code Editor ↗

// Script that shows how to apply filters to identify
// validation points that were misclassified
var s2 = ee.ImageCollection("COPERNICUS/S2_SR_HARMONIZED");
var basin = ee.FeatureCollection("WWF/HydroSHEDS/v1/Basins/hybas_7");
var gcp = ee.FeatureCollection("users/ujavalgandhi/e2e/arkavathy_gcps");

Map.centerObject(gcp)
var arkavathy = basin.filter(ee.Filter.eq('HYBAS_ID', 4071139640))
var boundary = arkavathy.geometry()
var rgbVis = {
  min: 0.0,
  max: 3000,
  bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2'],
};
 
var filtered = s2
.filter(ee.Filter.lt('CLOUDY_PIXEL_PERCENTAGE', 30))
  .filter(ee.Filter.date('2019-01-01', '2020-01-01'))
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(boundary))
  .select('B.*')

var composite = filtered.median().clip(boundary) 

// Display the input composite.
Map.addLayer(composite, rgbVis, 'image');


// Add a random column and split the GCPs into training and validation set
var gcp = gcp.randomColumn()
var trainingGcp = gcp.filter(ee.Filter.lt('random', 0.6));
var validationGcp = gcp.filter(ee.Filter.gte('random', 0.6));

// Overlay the point on the image to get training data.
var training = composite.sampleRegions({
  collection: trainingGcp,
  properties: ['landcover'],
  scale: 10,
  tileScale: 16,
  geometries:true
});
// Train a classifier.
var classifier = ee.Classifier.smileRandomForest(50)
.train({
  features: training,  
  classProperty: 'landcover',
  inputProperties: composite.bandNames()
});

// Classify the image.
var classified = composite.classify(classifier);

var palette = ['#cc6d8f', '#ffc107', '#1e88e5', '#004d40' ];
Map.addLayer(classified, {min: 0, max: 3, palette: palette}, '2019');

var test = classified.sampleRegions({
  collection: validationGcp,
  properties: ['landcover'],
  tileScale: 16,
  scale: 10,
  geometries:true
});

var testConfusionMatrix = test.errorMatrix('landcover', 'classification')
print('Confusion Matrix', testConfusionMatrix);

// Let's apply filters to find misclassified points
// We can find all points which are labeled landcover=0 (urban) 
// but were not classified correctly

// We use ee.Filter.and() function to create a combined filter
var combinedFilter = ee.Filter.and(
  ee.Filter.eq('landcover', 0), ee.Filter.neq('classification', 0))
var urbanMisclassified = test.filter(combinedFilter)
print('Urban Misclassified Points', urbanMisclassified)

// We can also apply a filter to select all misclassified points
// Since we are comparing 2 properties agaist each-other,
// we need to use a binary filter
var misClassified = test.filter(ee.Filter.notEquals({
  leftField:'classification', rightField:'landcover'}))
  
print('All Misclassified Points', misClassified)

// Display the misclassified points by styling them
var landcover = ee.List([0, 1, 2, 3])
var palette = ee.List(['gray','brown','blue','green'])
var misclassStyled = ee.FeatureCollection(
  landcover.map(function(lc){
    var feature = misClassified.filter(ee.Filter.eq('landcover', lc))
    var color = palette.get(landcover.indexOf(lc));
    var markerStyle = {color:color}
    return feature.map(function(point){
       return point.set('style', markerStyle)
       })
    })).flatten();
      
Map.addLayer(misclassStyled.style({styleProperty:"style"}), {}, 'Misclassified Points')

Image Normalization and Standardization

For machine learning, it is a recommended practice to either normalize or standardize your features. The code below shows how to implement these feature scaling techniques.

Open in Code Editor ↗

var image = ee.Image("users/ujavalgandhi/e2e/arkavathy_2019_composite");
var boundary = ee.FeatureCollection("users/ujavalgandhi/e2e/arkavathy_boundary")
var geometry = boundary.geometry()

//************************************************************************** 
// Function to Normalize Image
// Pixel Values should be between 0 and 1
// Formula is (x - xmin) / (xmax - xmin)
//************************************************************************** 
function normalize(image){
  var bandNames = image.bandNames();
  // Compute min and max of the image
  var minDict = image.reduceRegion({
    reducer: ee.Reducer.min(),
    geometry: geometry,
    scale: 10,
    maxPixels: 1e9,
    bestEffort: true,
    tileScale: 16
  });
  var maxDict = image.reduceRegion({
    reducer: ee.Reducer.max(),
    geometry: geometry,
    scale: 10,
    maxPixels: 1e9,
    bestEffort: true,
    tileScale: 16
  });
  var mins = ee.Image.constant(minDict.values(bandNames));
  var maxs = ee.Image.constant(maxDict.values(bandNames));

  var normalized = image.subtract(mins).divide(maxs.subtract(mins))
  return normalized
}

//************************************************************************** 
// Function to Standardize Image
// (Mean Centered Imagery with Unit Standard Deviation)
// https://365datascience.com/tutorials/statistics-tutorials/standardization/
//************************************************************************** 
function standardize(image){
  var bandNames = image.bandNames();
  // Mean center the data to enable a faster covariance reducer
  // and an SD stretch of the principal components.
  var meanDict = image.reduceRegion({
    reducer: ee.Reducer.mean(),
    geometry: geometry,
    scale: 10,
    maxPixels: 1e9,
    bestEffort: true,
    tileScale: 16
  });
  var means = ee.Image.constant(meanDict.values(bandNames));
  var centered = image.subtract(means)
  
  var stdDevDict = image.reduceRegion({
    reducer: ee.Reducer.stdDev(),
    geometry: geometry,
    scale: 10,
    maxPixels: 1e9,
    bestEffort: true,
    tileScale: 16
  });
  var stddevs = ee.Image.constant(stdDevDict.values(bandNames));

  var standardized = centered.divide(stddevs);
   
  return standardized
}

var standardizedImage = standardize(image)
var normalizedImage = normalize(image)


Map.addLayer(image, 
  {bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2'], min: 0, max: 0.3, gamma: 1.2}, 'Original Image');
Map.addLayer(normalizedImage,
  {bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2'], min: 0, max: 1, gamma: 1.2}, 'Normalized Image');
Map.addLayer(standardizedImage,
  {bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2'], min: -1, max: 2, gamma: 1.2}, 'Standarized Image');
Map.centerObject(geometry)

// Verify Normalization

var beforeDict = image.reduceRegion({
  reducer: ee.Reducer.minMax(),
  geometry: geometry,
  scale: 10,
  maxPixels: 1e9,
  bestEffort: true,
  tileScale: 16
});

var afterDict = normalizedImage.reduceRegion({
  reducer: ee.Reducer.minMax(),
  geometry: geometry,
  scale: 10,
  maxPixels: 1e9,
  bestEffort: true,
  tileScale: 16
});

print('Original Image Min/Max', beforeDict)
print('Normalized Image Min/Max', afterDict)

// Verify Standadization
// Verify that the means are 0 and standard deviations are 1
var beforeDict = image.reduceRegion({
  reducer: ee.Reducer.mean().combine({
      reducer2: ee.Reducer.stdDev(), sharedInputs: true}),
  geometry: geometry,
  scale: 10,
  maxPixels: 1e9,
  bestEffort: true,
  tileScale: 16
});

var resultDict = standardizedImage.reduceRegion({
  reducer: ee.Reducer.mean().combine({
      reducer2: ee.Reducer.stdDev(), sharedInputs: true}),
  geometry: geometry,
  scale: 10,
  maxPixels: 1e9,
  bestEffort: true,
  tileScale: 16
});
// Means are very small franctions close to 0
// Round them off to 2 decimals
var afterDict = resultDict.map(function(key, value) {
  return ee.Number(value).format('%.2f')
})

print('Original Image Mean/StdDev', beforeDict)
print('Standadized Image Mean/StdDev', afterDict)

Calculate Feature Importance

Many classifiers in GEE have a explain() method that calculates feature importances. The classifier will assign a score to each input variable on how useful they were at predicting the correct value. The script below shows how to extract the feature importance and create a chart to visualize it.

Relative Feature Importance

Relative Feature Importance

Open in Code Editor ↗

var bangalore = ee.FeatureCollection('users/ujavalgandhi/public/bangalore_boundary')
var s2 = ee.ImageCollection('COPERNICUS/S2_SR_HARMONIZED')
var gcps = ee.FeatureCollection('users/ujavalgandhi/e2e/bangalore_gcps')

var filtered = s2
.filter(ee.Filter.lt('CLOUDY_PIXEL_PERCENTAGE', 30))
  .filter(ee.Filter.date('2019-01-01', '2020-01-01'))
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(bangalore))
  .select('B.*')

var composite = filtered.median().clip(bangalore) 


var addIndices = function(image) {
  var ndvi = image.normalizedDifference(['B8', 'B4']).rename(['ndvi']);
  var ndbi = image.normalizedDifference(['B11', 'B8']).rename(['ndbi']);
  var mndwi = image.normalizedDifference(['B3', 'B11']).rename(['mndwi']); 
  var bsi = image.expression(
      '(( X + Y ) - (A + B)) /(( X + Y ) + (A + B)) ', {
        'X': image.select('B11'), //swir1
        'Y': image.select('B4'),  //red
        'A': image.select('B8'), // nir
        'B': image.select('B2'), // blue
  }).rename('bsi');
  return image.addBands(ndvi).addBands(ndbi).addBands(mndwi).addBands(bsi)
}

composite = addIndices(composite)


// Display the input composite.
var rgbVis = {
  min: 0.0,
  max: 3000,
  bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2'],
};
Map.addLayer(composite, rgbVis, 'image');


// Overlay the point on the image to get training data.
var training = composite.sampleRegions({
  collection: gcps, 
  properties: ['landcover'], 
  scale: 10
});


// Train a classifier.
var classifier = ee.Classifier.smileRandomForest(50).train({
  features: training,  
  classProperty: 'landcover', 
  inputProperties: composite.bandNames()
});
// // Classify the image.
var classified = composite.classify(classifier);
var palette = ['#cc6d8f', '#ffc107', '#1e88e5', '#004d40' ];
Map.addLayer(classified, {min: 0, max: 3, palette: palette}, '2019');


//************************************************************************** 
// Calculate Feature Importance
//************************************************************************** 
    
// Run .explain() to see what the classifer looks like
print(classifier.explain())

// Calculate variable importance
var importance = ee.Dictionary(classifier.explain().get('importance'))


// Calculate relative importance
var sum = importance.values().reduce(ee.Reducer.sum())

var relativeImportance = importance.map(function(key, val) {
   return (ee.Number(val).multiply(100)).divide(sum)
  })
print(relativeImportance)

// Create a FeatureCollection so we can chart it
var importanceFc = ee.FeatureCollection([
  ee.Feature(null, relativeImportance)
])

var chart = ui.Chart.feature.byProperty({
  features: importanceFc
}).setOptions({
      title: 'Feature Importance',
      vAxis: {title: 'Importance'},
      hAxis: {title: 'Feature'},
      legend: {position: 'none'}
  })
print(chart)

Classification with Migrated Training Samples

Open in Code Editor ↗

// Script showing how to use migrated training samples
// for multi-year classification

// Training samples are collected on a 2019 Sentinel-2 composite
// and are used to classify a 2020 Sentinel-2 composite
// We use spectral distance measure to discard samples that show
// large change between the target and reference years.
var s2 = ee.ImageCollection('COPERNICUS/S2_SR_HARMONIZED');
var basin = ee.FeatureCollection("WWF/HydroSHEDS/v1/Basins/hybas_7");
var gcp = ee.FeatureCollection("users/ujavalgandhi/e2e/arkavathy_gcps");
    
var arkavathy = basin.filter(ee.Filter.eq('HYBAS_ID', 4071139640));
var geometry = arkavathy.geometry();
Map.centerObject(geometry);

var rgbVis = {
  min: 0.0,
  max: 0.3,
  bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2'],
};

var scaleValues = function(image) {
  return image.multiply(0.0001).copyProperties(image, ['system:time_start']);
};

// Prepare 2019 composite
var filtered = s2
.filter(ee.Filter.lt('CLOUDY_PIXEL_PERCENTAGE', 30))
  .filter(ee.Filter.date('2019-01-01', '2020-01-01'))
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry))
  .select('B.*')
  .map(scaleValues);

var composite2019 = filtered.median().clip(geometry);


// Prepare 2020 Composite
var filtered = s2
.filter(ee.Filter.lt('CLOUDY_PIXEL_PERCENTAGE', 30))
  .filter(ee.Filter.date('2020-01-01', '2021-01-01'))
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry))
  .select('B.*')
  .map(scaleValues);

var composite2020 = filtered.median().clip(geometry);

// Display the 2020 composite.
Map.addLayer(composite2019, rgbVis, 'Composite 2019');
// Display the 2021 composite.
Map.addLayer(composite2020, rgbVis, 'Composite 2020');


// Compute Spectral Distance between 2019 and 2020 images
var distance = composite2019.spectralDistance(composite2020, 'sam');
// GCPs were collected on 2020 image
// Find out which GCPs are still unchanged in 2021

// Get the distance at the training points
var gcpWithDistance = distance.sampleRegions({
  collection: gcp,
  scale: 10,
  tileScale: 16,
  geometries: true
})
Map.addLayer(gcpWithDistance, {color: 'red'}, 'GCPs with Distance', false);

// Adjust the threshold to discard GCPs are changed locations
// Threshold is determined manually
var threshold = 0.2
var newGcp = gcpWithDistance.filter(ee.Filter.lt('distance', threshold));
Map.addLayer(newGcp, {color: 'blue'}, 'Filtered GCPs');

print('Total GCPs', gcp.size());
print('Migrated GCPs', newGcp.size());
// We wrap the classification workflow in a function
// and call the function with the different composites and GCPs
performClassification(composite2019, gcp, '2019');
performClassification(composite2020, newGcp, '2020');

//************************************************************************** 
// Classification and Accuracy Assessment
//************************************************************************** 
function performClassification(image, gcp, year) {
  var gcp = gcp.randomColumn();
  var trainingGcp = gcp.filter(ee.Filter.lt('random', 0.6));
  var validationGcp = gcp.filter(ee.Filter.gte('random', 0.6));
  
  // Overlay the point on the image to get training data.
  var training = image.sampleRegions({
    collection: trainingGcp,
    properties: ['landcover'],
    scale: 10,
    tileScale: 16
  });
  
  // Train a classifier.
  var classifier = ee.Classifier.smileRandomForest(50)
  .train({
    features: training,  
    classProperty: 'landcover',
    inputProperties: image.bandNames()
  });
  
  // Classify the image.
  var classified = image.classify(classifier);
  
  var palette = ['#cc6d8f', '#ffc107', '#1e88e5', '#004d40' ];
  Map.addLayer(classified, {min: 0, max: 3, palette: palette}, year);
  
  // Use classification map to assess accuracy using the validation fraction
  // of the overall training set created above.
  var test = classified.sampleRegions({
    collection: validationGcp,
    properties: ['landcover'],
    tileScale: 16,
    scale: 10,
  });
  
  var testConfusionMatrix = test.errorMatrix('landcover', 'classification')
  // Printing of confusion matrix may time out. Alternatively, you can export it as CSV
  print('Confusion Matrix ' + year, testConfusionMatrix);
  print('Test Accuracy ' + year, testConfusionMatrix.accuracy());

}

Time Series Modeling

Open in Code Editor ↗

// Example script showing how to fit a harmonic model 
// to a NDVI time-series
// This is largely adapted from
// https://developers.google.com/earth-engine/tutorials/community/time-series-modeling

var s2 = ee.ImageCollection('COPERNICUS/S2_SR_HARMONIZED');

// We define 2 polygons for adjacent farms
var farms = ee.FeatureCollection([
  ee.Feature(
    ee.Geometry.Polygon(
      [[[82.55407706060632, 27.135887938359975],
        [82.55605116644128, 27.135085913223808],
        [82.55613699712976, 27.13527687211144],
        [82.55418434896691, 27.136117087342033]]]),
      {'system:index': '0'}),
    ee.Feature(
      ee.Geometry.Polygon(
        [[[82.54973858752477, 27.137188234050676],
          [82.55046814837682, 27.136806322479018],
          [82.55033940234411, 27.136500792282273],
          [82.5508973018192, 27.136328931179623],
          [82.55119770922887, 27.13688270489774],
          [82.5498887912296, 27.137455571374517]]]),
        {'system:index': '1'})
]);
Map.centerObject(farms)

var geometry = farms.geometry();
//Map.addLayer(geometry, {color: 'grey'}, 'Boundary');
//Map.centerObject(geometry);

var rgbVis = {
  min: 0.0,
  max: 3000,
  bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2'],
};
// Function to remove cloud and snow pixels from Sentinel-2 SR image

function maskCloudAndShadowsSR(image) {
  var cloudProb = image.select('MSK_CLDPRB');
  var snowProb = image.select('MSK_SNWPRB');
  var cloud = cloudProb.lt(10);
  var scl = image.select('SCL'); 
  var shadow = scl.eq(3); // 3 = cloud shadow
  var cirrus = scl.eq(10); // 10 = cirrus
  // Cloud probability less than 10% or cloud shadow classification
  var mask = cloud.and(cirrus.neq(1)).and(shadow.neq(1));
  return image.updateMask(mask);
}


var filtered = s2
.filter(ee.Filter.lt('CLOUDY_PIXEL_PERCENTAGE', 30))
  .filter(ee.Filter.date('2017-01-01', '2023-01-01'))
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry))
  .map(maskCloudAndShadowsSR)
  .select('B.*');

// Function to add NDVI, time, and constant variables
var addVariables = function(image) {
  // Compute time in fractional years since the epoch.
  var date = image.date();
  var years = date.difference(ee.Date('1970-01-01'), 'year');
  var timeRadians = ee.Image(years.multiply(2 * Math.PI));

  // Return the image with the added bands.
  var ndvi = image.normalizedDifference(['B8', 'B4']).rename(['ndvi']);
  var t = timeRadians.rename('t').float();
  var constant = ee.Image.constant(1);
  return image.addBands([ndvi, t, constant]);
};

var filteredWithVariables = filtered.map(addVariables);
print(filteredWithVariables.first());

// Plot a time series of NDVI at a single location.
var singleFarm = ee.Feature(farms.toList(2).get(0));

// Display a time-series chart
var chart = ui.Chart.image.series({
  imageCollection: filteredWithVariables.select('ndvi'),
  region: singleFarm.geometry(),
  reducer: ee.Reducer.mean(),
  scale: 10
}).setOptions({
      title: 'Original NDVI Time Series',
      interpolateNulls: false,
      vAxis: {title: 'NDVI', viewWindow: {min: 0, max: 1}},
      hAxis: {title: '', format: 'YYYY-MM'},
      lineWidth: 1,
      pointSize: 2,
      series: {
        0: {color: '#238b45'},
      },
    })
print(chart);



// The number of cycles per year to model.
var harmonics = 2;

// Make a list of harmonic frequencies to model.  
// These also serve as band name suffixes.
var harmonicFrequencies = ee.List.sequence(1, harmonics);

// Function to get a sequence of band names for harmonic terms.
var getNames = function(base, list) {
  return ee.List(list).map(function(i) { 
    return ee.String(base).cat(ee.Number(i).int());
  });
};

// Construct lists of names for the harmonic terms.
var cosNames = getNames('cos_', harmonicFrequencies);
var sinNames = getNames('sin_', harmonicFrequencies);



// The dependent variable we are modeling.
var dependent = 'ndvi';

// Independent variables.
var independents = ee.List(['constant', 't']).cat(cosNames).cat(sinNames);


// Function to compute the specified number of harmonics
// and add them as bands. Assumes the time band is present.
var addHarmonics = function(freqs) {
  return function(image) {
    // Make an image of frequencies.
    var frequencies = ee.Image.constant(freqs);
    // This band should represent time in radians.
    var time = ee.Image(image).select('t');
    // Get the cosine terms.
    var cosines = time.multiply(frequencies).cos().rename(cosNames);
    // Get the sin terms.
    var sines = time.multiply(frequencies).sin().rename(sinNames);
    return image.addBands(cosines).addBands(sines);
  };
};

var filteredHarmonic = filteredWithVariables.map(addHarmonics(harmonicFrequencies));

// The output of the regression reduction is a 4x1 array image.
var harmonicTrend = filteredHarmonic
  .select(independents.add(dependent))
  .reduce(ee.Reducer.linearRegression(independents.length(), 1));

// Turn the array image into a multi-band image of coefficients.
var harmonicTrendCoefficients = harmonicTrend.select('coefficients')
  .arrayProject([0])
  .arrayFlatten([independents]);

// Compute fitted values.
var fittedHarmonic = filteredHarmonic.map(function(image) {
  return image.addBands(
    image.select(independents)
      .multiply(harmonicTrendCoefficients)
      .reduce('sum')
      .rename('fitted'));
});

// Plot the fitted model and the original data at the ROI.

var chart = ui.Chart.image.series({
  imageCollection: fittedHarmonic.select(['fitted', 'ndvi']),
  region: singleFarm.geometry(),
  reducer: ee.Reducer.mean(),
  scale: 10
}).setOptions({
      title: 'NDVI Time Series',
      vAxis: {title: 'NDVI', viewWindow: {min: 0, max: 1}},
      hAxis: {title: '', format: 'YYYY-MM'},
      lineWidth: 1,
      series: {
        1: {color: '#66c2a4', lineDashStyle: [1, 1], pointSize: 1}, // Original NDVI
        0: {color: '#238b45', lineWidth: 2, pointSize: 1 }, // Fitted NDVI
      },
    })
print(chart);

print(fittedHarmonic);
// Compute phase and amplitude.
var phase = harmonicTrendCoefficients.select('sin_1')
  .atan2(harmonicTrendCoefficients.select('cos_1'))
  // Scale to [0, 1] from radians.
  .unitScale(-Math.PI, Math.PI);
var amplitude = harmonicTrendCoefficients.select('sin_1')
  .hypot(harmonicTrendCoefficients.select('cos_1'))
  // Add a scale factor for visualization.
  .multiply(5);
// Use the HSV to RGB transformation to display phase and amplitude.
var rgb = ee.Image.cat([phase, amplitude, ee.Image(1)]).hsvToRgb();
Map.addLayer(rgb, {}, 'Phase (hue), Amplitude (sat)', false);

// The Phase and Amplitude values will be very different
// at farms following different cropping cycles
// Let's plot and compare the fitted time series
// Farm 1: Single cropping
// Farm 2: Multiple cropping
var chart = ui.Chart.image.seriesByRegion({
  imageCollection: fittedHarmonic.select('fitted'),
  regions: farms,
  reducer: ee.Reducer.mean(),
  scale: 10
}).setSeriesNames(['farm1', 'farm2']).setOptions({
      lineWidth: 1,
      title: 'Fitted NDVI Time Series at 2 Different Farms',
      interpolateNulls: true,
      vAxis: {title: 'NDVI'},
      hAxis: {title: '', format: 'YYYY-MMM'},
    })
print(chart);

Using SAR data

Open in Code Editor ↗

// Script showing how to stack Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-1 bands
// for supervised classification

var basin = ee.FeatureCollection("WWF/HydroSHEDS/v1/Basins/hybas_7")
var arkavathy = basin.filter(ee.Filter.eq('HYBAS_ID', 4071139640))
var geometry = arkavathy.geometry();
Map.centerObject(geometry);
var s2 = ee.ImageCollection('COPERNICUS/S2_SR_HARMONIZED')
var rgbVis = {
  min: 0.0,
  max: 3000,
  bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2'],
};
// Function to remove cloud and snow pixels from Sentinel-2 SR image 
function maskCloudAndShadowsSR(image) {
  var cloudProb = image.select('MSK_CLDPRB');
  var snowProb = image.select('MSK_SNWPRB');
  var cloud = cloudProb.lt(10);
  var scl = image.select('SCL'); 
  var shadow = scl.eq(3); // 3 = cloud shadow
  var cirrus = scl.eq(10); // 10 = cirrus
  // Cloud probability less than 10% or cloud shadow classification
  var mask = cloud.and(cirrus.neq(1)).and(shadow.neq(1));
  return image.updateMask(mask).divide(10000);
}


var filtered = s2
  .filter(ee.Filter.date('2019-01-01', '2020-01-01'))
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry))
  .map(maskCloudAndShadowsSR)
  .select('B.*')
  
var composite = filtered.median().clip(geometry)

var s1 = ee.ImageCollection("COPERNICUS/S1_GRD")
var filtered = s1
  // Filter to get images with VV and VH dual polarization.
  .filter(ee.Filter.listContains('transmitterReceiverPolarisation', 'VV'))
  .filter(ee.Filter.listContains('transmitterReceiverPolarisation', 'VH'))
  .filter(ee.Filter.eq('instrumentMode', 'IW'))
  // Change the pass to ASCENDING depending on your location
  .filter(ee.Filter.eq('orbitProperties_pass', 'DESCENDING'))
  .filterDate('2019-01-01', '2020-01-01')
  .filterBounds(geometry)
  .select('V.')

// Apply Speckle Filter
var speckleFiltered = filtered.map(refinedLee);

// Mean is preferred for SAR data
var sarComposite = speckleFiltered.mean()
var composite = composite.addBands(sarComposite)


// Use this composite for supervised classification
print(composite);


// Speckle Filtering functions
// Credit: SERVIR-Mekong, adapted from
// https://mygeoblog.com/2021/01/21/sentinel-1-speckle-filter-refined-lee/
function powerToDb(img){
  return ee.Image(10).multiply(img.log10());
}
 
function dbToPower(img){
  return ee.Image(10).pow(img.divide(10));
}
 
// The RL speckle filter
function refinedLee(image) {
  var date = image.date();
  var bandNames = image.bandNames();
  image = dbToPower(image);
   
  var result = ee.ImageCollection(bandNames.map(function(b){
    var img = image.select([b]);
     
    // img must be in natural units, i.e. not in dB!
    // Set up 3x3 kernels 
    var weights3 = ee.List.repeat(ee.List.repeat(1,3),3);
    var kernel3 = ee.Kernel.fixed(3,3, weights3, 1, 1, false);
   
    var mean3 = img.reduceNeighborhood(ee.Reducer.mean(), kernel3);
    var variance3 = img.reduceNeighborhood(ee.Reducer.variance(), kernel3);
   
    // Use a sample of the 3x3 windows inside a 7x7 windows to determine gradients and directions
    var sample_weights = ee.List([[0,0,0,0,0,0,0], [0,1,0,1,0,1,0],[0,0,0,0,0,0,0], [0,1,0,1,0,1,0], [0,0,0,0,0,0,0], [0,1,0,1,0,1,0],[0,0,0,0,0,0,0]]);
   
    var sample_kernel = ee.Kernel.fixed(7,7, sample_weights, 3,3, false);
   
    // Calculate mean and variance for the sampled windows and store as 9 bands
    var sample_mean = mean3.neighborhoodToBands(sample_kernel); 
    var sample_var = variance3.neighborhoodToBands(sample_kernel);
   
    // Determine the 4 gradients for the sampled windows
    var gradients = sample_mean.select(1).subtract(sample_mean.select(7)).abs();
    gradients = gradients.addBands(sample_mean.select(6).subtract(sample_mean.select(2)).abs());
    gradients = gradients.addBands(sample_mean.select(3).subtract(sample_mean.select(5)).abs());
    gradients = gradients.addBands(sample_mean.select(0).subtract(sample_mean.select(8)).abs());
   
    // And find the maximum gradient amongst gradient bands
    var max_gradient = gradients.reduce(ee.Reducer.max());
   
    // Create a mask for band pixels that are the maximum gradient
    var gradmask = gradients.eq(max_gradient);
   
    // duplicate gradmask bands: each gradient represents 2 directions
    gradmask = gradmask.addBands(gradmask);
   
    // Determine the 8 directions
    var directions = sample_mean.select(1).subtract(sample_mean.select(4)).gt(sample_mean.select(4).subtract(sample_mean.select(7))).multiply(1);
    directions = directions.addBands(sample_mean.select(6).subtract(sample_mean.select(4)).gt(sample_mean.select(4).subtract(sample_mean.select(2))).multiply(2));
    directions = directions.addBands(sample_mean.select(3).subtract(sample_mean.select(4)).gt(sample_mean.select(4).subtract(sample_mean.select(5))).multiply(3));
    directions = directions.addBands(sample_mean.select(0).subtract(sample_mean.select(4)).gt(sample_mean.select(4).subtract(sample_mean.select(8))).multiply(4));
    // The next 4 are the not() of the previous 4
    directions = directions.addBands(directions.select(0).not().multiply(5));
    directions = directions.addBands(directions.select(1).not().multiply(6));
    directions = directions.addBands(directions.select(2).not().multiply(7));
    directions = directions.addBands(directions.select(3).not().multiply(8));
   
    // Mask all values that are not 1-8
    directions = directions.updateMask(gradmask);
   
    // "collapse" the stack into a singe band image (due to masking, each pixel has just one value (1-8) in it's directional band, and is otherwise masked)
    directions = directions.reduce(ee.Reducer.sum());  
   
    //var pal = ['ffffff','ff0000','ffff00', '00ff00', '00ffff', '0000ff', 'ff00ff', '000000'];
    //Map.addLayer(directions.reduce(ee.Reducer.sum()), {min:1, max:8, palette: pal}, 'Directions', false);
   
    var sample_stats = sample_var.divide(sample_mean.multiply(sample_mean));
   
    // Calculate localNoiseVariance
    var sigmaV = sample_stats.toArray().arraySort().arraySlice(0,0,5).arrayReduce(ee.Reducer.mean(), [0]);
   
    // Set up the 7*7 kernels for directional statistics
    var rect_weights = ee.List.repeat(ee.List.repeat(0,7),3).cat(ee.List.repeat(ee.List.repeat(1,7),4));
   
    var diag_weights = ee.List([[1,0,0,0,0,0,0], [1,1,0,0,0,0,0], [1,1,1,0,0,0,0], 
      [1,1,1,1,0,0,0], [1,1,1,1,1,0,0], [1,1,1,1,1,1,0], [1,1,1,1,1,1,1]]);
   
    var rect_kernel = ee.Kernel.fixed(7,7, rect_weights, 3, 3, false);
    var diag_kernel = ee.Kernel.fixed(7,7, diag_weights, 3, 3, false);
   
    // Create stacks for mean and variance using the original kernels. Mask with relevant direction.
    var dir_mean = img.reduceNeighborhood(ee.Reducer.mean(), rect_kernel).updateMask(directions.eq(1));
    var dir_var = img.reduceNeighborhood(ee.Reducer.variance(), rect_kernel).updateMask(directions.eq(1));
   
    dir_mean = dir_mean.addBands(img.reduceNeighborhood(ee.Reducer.mean(), diag_kernel).updateMask(directions.eq(2)));
    dir_var = dir_var.addBands(img.reduceNeighborhood(ee.Reducer.variance(), diag_kernel).updateMask(directions.eq(2)));
   
    // and add the bands for rotated kernels
    for (var i=1; i<4; i++) {
      dir_mean = dir_mean.addBands(img.reduceNeighborhood(ee.Reducer.mean(), rect_kernel.rotate(i)).updateMask(directions.eq(2*i+1)));
      dir_var = dir_var.addBands(img.reduceNeighborhood(ee.Reducer.variance(), rect_kernel.rotate(i)).updateMask(directions.eq(2*i+1)));
      dir_mean = dir_mean.addBands(img.reduceNeighborhood(ee.Reducer.mean(), diag_kernel.rotate(i)).updateMask(directions.eq(2*i+2)));
      dir_var = dir_var.addBands(img.reduceNeighborhood(ee.Reducer.variance(), diag_kernel.rotate(i)).updateMask(directions.eq(2*i+2)));
    }
   
    // "collapse" the stack into a single band image (due to masking, each pixel has just one value in it's directional band, and is otherwise masked)
    dir_mean = dir_mean.reduce(ee.Reducer.sum());
    dir_var = dir_var.reduce(ee.Reducer.sum());
   
    // A finally generate the filtered value
    var varX = dir_var.subtract(dir_mean.multiply(dir_mean).multiply(sigmaV)).divide(sigmaV.add(1.0));
   
    var b = varX.divide(dir_var);
   
    return dir_mean.add(b.multiply(img.subtract(dir_mean)))
      .arrayProject([0])
      // Get a multi-band image bands.
      .arrayFlatten([['sum']])
      .float();
  })).toBands().rename(bandNames);
  var resultImage = powerToDb(ee.Image(result));
  return resultImage.set('system:time_start', date.millis());
}

Adding Spatial Context

Open in Code Editor ↗

// Script showing how to add spatial context 
// to classification training samples

var gcp = ee.FeatureCollection("users/ujavalgandhi/e2e/arkavathy_gcps");
var composite = ee.Image("users/ujavalgandhi/e2e/arkavathy_2019_composite");
var boundary = ee.FeatureCollection("users/ujavalgandhi/e2e/arkavathy_boundary");

var geometry = boundary.geometry()
Map.centerObject(geometry);

// 1. Add Latitude and Longitude bands
var composite = composite.addBands(ee.Image.pixelLonLat());

// 2. Add Distance to features

// We will add distance to nearest road segment
var roads = ee.FeatureCollection('users/ujavalgandhi/e2e/arkavathy_osm_roads');
Map.addLayer(roads, {color: 'gray'}, 'Roads', false);
var distance = roads.distance({searchRadius: 1000}).rename('roads_distance');
Map.addLayer(distance, {min:0, max:1000, palette: ['blue', 'white']}, 'Distance', false);

var composite = composite.addBands(distance);

// 3. Add Neighborhood bands
var addNdvi = function(image) {
  var ndvi = image.normalizedDifference(['B8', 'B4']).rename(['ndvi']);
  return image.addBands(ndvi);
};

var composite = addNdvi(composite);

var kernel = ee.Kernel.square({
  radius: 1,
  units: 'pixels',
})
var neighbors = composite.select('ndvi').neighborhoodToBands(kernel);

var composite = composite.addBands(neighbors);

// Overlay the point on the image to get training data.
var training = composite.sampleRegions({
  collection: gcp,
  properties: ['landcover'],
  scale: 30,
  tileScale: 16
});

print(training)

// Train a classifier.
var classifier = ee.Classifier.smileRandomForest(50)
.train({
  features: training,  
  classProperty: 'landcover',
  inputProperties: composite.bandNames()
});

// Classify the image.
var classified = composite.classify(classifier);

var rgbVis = {min: 0.0, max: 0.3, bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2']};
Map.addLayer(composite, rgbVis, 'Composite')
var palette = ['#cc6d8f', '#ffc107', '#1e88e5', '#004d40' ];
Map.addLayer(classified, {min: 0, max: 3, palette: palette}, 'Classified');

Advanced Change Detection Techniques

Landslide Detection using Dynamic World

Open in Code Editor ↗

// Landslides Detection using Dynamic World Probability Bands

// We want to detect landslides occurred in December 2018
// in India's Kodagu district.

var geometry = ee.Geometry.Polygon([[
  [75.70357667713435, 12.49723970868507],
  [75.70357667713435, 12.470171844429931],
  [75.7528434923199, 12.470171844429931],
  [75.7528434923199, 12.49723970868507]
]]);
var dateOfIncident = ee.Date.fromYMD(2018, 12, 15);

Map.centerObject(geometry)

var beforeDateFilter = ee.Filter.and(
  ee.Filter.date(dateOfIncident.advance(-2, 'year'), dateOfIncident),
  ee.Filter.calendarRange(12, 12, 'month'));

// The period after the landslides was comparitively
// cloud-free, so we obtain images from upto 1 month after.
var afterDateFilter = ee.Filter.date(
  dateOfIncident, dateOfIncident.advance(1, 'month'));
  
// Apply the filters and get composites

// Load the Dynamic World collection
var dw = ee.ImageCollection('GOOGLE/DYNAMICWORLD/V1');

var beforeDW = dw
  .filter(beforeDateFilter)
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry))
  .mean();
  
var afterDW = dw
  .filter(afterDateFilter)
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry))
  .mean();
  
// Load the Sentinel-2 collection 
var s2 = ee.ImageCollection('COPERNICUS/S2_HARMONIZED');

// Write a function for Cloud masking
function maskS2clouds(image) {
  var qa = image.select('QA60');
  var cloudBitMask = 1 << 10;
  var cirrusBitMask = 1 << 11;
  var mask = qa.bitwiseAnd(cloudBitMask).eq(0).and(
             qa.bitwiseAnd(cirrusBitMask).eq(0));
  return image.updateMask(mask)//.divide(10000)
      .select("B.*")
      .copyProperties(image, ["system:time_start"]);
} 

var filtered = s2
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry))
  .map(maskS2clouds)
  .select('B.*');

var beforeS2 = filtered
  .filter(beforeDateFilter)
  .median();

var afterS2 = filtered
  .filter(afterDateFilter)
  .median();

var rgbVis = {min: 0.0, max: 3000, bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2'],};

//Map.centerObject(geometry, 13);
Map.addLayer(beforeS2.clip(geometry), rgbVis, 'Before');
Map.addLayer(afterS2.clip(geometry), rgbVis, 'After');

var probabilityVis = {
  min:0, 
  max:0.5,
  palette: ['#ffffd4','#fed98e','#fe9929','#d95f0e','#993404'],
  bands: ['bare']
}
Map.addLayer(beforeDW.clip(geometry), probabilityVis, 'Before Probabilities', false);
Map.addLayer(afterDW.clip(geometry), probabilityVis, 'After Probabilities', false);

// We define the landslide pixels where the 'bare' probability
// has increased or 'trees' probability has decreased
var bareThreshold = 0.1;
var treesThreshold = 0.2;
var bareChange = afterDW.select('bare')
  .subtract(beforeDW.select('bare'))
  .gt(bareThreshold);
var treesChange = beforeDW.select('trees')
  .subtract(afterDW.select('trees'))
  .gt(treesThreshold);
var change = bareChange.or(treesChange);
  
var changeVis = {min:0, max:1, palette: ['red']};
Map.addLayer(change.selfMask().clip(geometry), changeVis,
  'Detected Landslides');

Urban Growth Detection using Dynamic World

Open in Code Editor ↗

// Urban Growth Change Detection using Dynamic World Probability Bands

var geometry = ee.Geometry.Polygon([[
  [77.43062052556523, 13.103764122826366],
  [77.43062052556523, 12.821384160047845],
  [77.7588370782996, 12.821384160047845],
  [77.7588370782996, 13.103764122826366]
]]);
Map.centerObject(geometry);

// Define the before and after time periods.
var beforeYear = 2022;
var afterYear = 2023;

// Create start and end dates for the before and after periods.
var beforeStart = ee.Date.fromYMD(beforeYear, 1 , 1);
var beforeEnd = beforeStart.advance(1, 'year');

var afterStart = ee.Date.fromYMD(afterYear, 1 , 1);
var afterEnd = afterStart.advance(1, 'year');

// Load the Dynamic World collection
var dw = ee.ImageCollection('GOOGLE/DYNAMICWORLD/V1')

// Filter the collection and select the 'built' band.
var dwFiltered = dw
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry))
  .select('built');

// Create mean composites
var beforeDw = dwFiltered.filter(
  ee.Filter.date(beforeStart, beforeEnd)).mean();
  
var afterDw = dwFiltered.filter(
  ee.Filter.date(afterStart, afterEnd)).mean();


// Add Sentinel-2 Composites to verify the results.
var s2 = ee.ImageCollection('COPERNICUS/S2_HARMONIZED')
     .filterBounds(geometry)
     .filter(ee.Filter.lt('CLOUDY_PIXEL_PERCENTAGE', 35));

// Create a median composite from sentinel-2 images.
var beforeS2 = s2.filterDate(beforeStart, beforeEnd).median();
var afterS2 = s2.filterDate(afterStart, afterEnd).median();
  
// Visualize images
var s2VisParams = {bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2'], min: 0, max: 3000};
Map.centerObject(geometry, 10);
Map.addLayer(beforeS2.clip(geometry), s2VisParams, 'Before S2');
Map.addLayer(afterS2.clip(geometry), s2VisParams, 'After S2');

// Select all pixels that have experienced large change
// in 'built' probbility
var builtChangeThreshold = 0.3; 
var newUrban = afterDw.subtract(beforeDw).gt(builtChangeThreshold);

var changeVisParams = {min: 0, max: 1, palette: ['white', 'red']};
Map.addLayer(newUrban.clip(geometry), changeVisParams, 'New Urban');

// Mask all pixels with 0 value using selfMask()
var newUrbanMasked = newUrban.selfMask();

Map.addLayer(
  newUrbanMasked.clip(geometry), changeVisParams, 'New Urban (Masked)');

// To ensure the masked values are set to NoData, 
// we cast the image to float and clip to geomery
var newUrbanMaskedExport = newUrbanMasked.toFloat().clip(geometry);

Export.image.toDrive({
  image: newUrbanMaskedExport,
  description: 'New_Urban_Areas_' + beforeYear + '_' + afterYear,
  folder: 'earthengine',
  fileNamePrefix: 'new_urban_areas_' + beforeYear + '_' + afterYear,
  region: geometry,
  scale: 10,
  maxPixels: 1e10
});

Conflict Mapping

During the Israel-Palestine Crisis of 2021, Gaza was bombed heavily during May 2021. We are able to monitor and detect bombed sites using Sentinel-2 images captured before and after the bombing. Jamon Van Den Hoek put together a Google Earth Engine App with his analysis of the bombing. The script below is an adaptation with open-source code showing how to carry out such mapping using change detection techniques.

Open in Code Editor ↗

// Gaza bomb damage analysis
// Adapted from https://jamonvdh.users.earthengine.app/view/gaza-bomb-damage-analysis
// Original app by: Jamon Van Den Hoek
// Adapted code by: Ujaval Gandhi 

var gaul = ee.FeatureCollection("FAO/GAUL/2015/level0");
var gaza = gaul.filter(ee.Filter.eq('ADM0_NAME', 'Gaza Strip'))
var geometry = gaza.geometry()
Map.setCenter(34.45, 31.5, 14)

function maskS2clouds(image) {
  var qa = image.select('QA60');

  // Bits 10 and 11 are clouds and cirrus, respectively.
  var cloudBitMask = 1 << 10;
  var cirrusBitMask = 1 << 11;

  // Both flags should be set to zero, indicating clear conditions.
  var mask = qa.bitwiseAnd(cloudBitMask).eq(0)
      .and(qa.bitwiseAnd(cirrusBitMask).eq(0));

  return image.updateMask(mask).divide(10000).copyProperties(image, ['system:time_start']);
}


var s2 = ee.ImageCollection("COPERNICUS/S2_HARMONIZED")
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry))
  .map(maskS2clouds);

var beforeDate  = ee.Date('2021-05-10')
var afterDate = ee.Date('2021-05-15')

var before = s2.filter(ee.Filter.date(beforeDate, beforeDate.advance(1, 'day')))
var beforeComposite = before.median()

var after = s2.filter(ee.Filter.date(afterDate, afterDate.advance(1, 'day')))

var afterComposite = after.median()

var rgbVis = {min: 0, max: 0.3, bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2']};
var nrgVis = {min: 0, max: 0.3, bands: ['B8', 'B4', 'B3']};

Map.addLayer(beforeComposite.clip(geometry), {min: 0, max: 0.3, bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2']}, 'Before')
Map.addLayer(afterComposite.clip(geometry), {min: 0, max: 0.4, bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2']}, 'After')

var addIndices = function(image) {
  var nbr = image.normalizedDifference(['B8', 'B12']).rename(['nbr']);
  var ndvi = image.normalizedDifference(['B8', 'B4']).rename(['ndvi'])
  return image.addBands(nbr).addBands(ndvi);
}

// You can try change detection with either NBR or NDVI
var selectedIndex = 'nbr';
var beforeNbr = addIndices(beforeComposite).select(selectedIndex);
var afterNbr = addIndices(afterComposite).select(selectedIndex);

// Change in Index
var difference = beforeNbr.subtract(afterNbr).clip(geometry)

var indexThreshold = 0.25;
var change = difference.gt(indexThreshold)

// Mask Waterbodies using WorldCover
var classification = ee.ImageCollection("ESA/WorldCover/v100").first();
var water = classification.eq(80)
var change = change.updateMask(water.not())
Map.addLayer(change.selfMask(), {min:0, max: 1, palette: ['orange']} , 'Detected Change')

var minArea = 300
var maxArea = 50000
// S2 resolution is 10m
var minPixels = ee.Number(minArea).divide(100)
var maxPixels = ee.Number(maxArea).divide(100)

var change = change
var connections = change.connectedPixelCount(maxPixels.add(10))

var masked = change
  .updateMask(connections.gt(minPixels).and(connections.lte(maxPixels)))

var vectors = masked.selfMask().reduceToVectors({
  scale: 10,
  eightConnected: false,
  maxPixels: 1e10})

// Paint all the polygon edges with the same number and width, display.
var colored = ee.Image().byte().paint({
  featureCollection: vectors,
  color: 1,
});
Map.addLayer(colored, {max:1, palette:['red']} , 'Detected Change (Filtered)')

var centroids = vectors.map(function(f) {
  return f.centroid({maxError:1})
})
Map.addLayer(centroids, {max:1, color: 'cyan'} , 'Detected Site Centroids')


Export.table.toDrive({
  collection: centroids,
  description: 'Detected_Site_Centroids',
  folder: 'earthengine',
  fileNamePrefix: 'change_sites',
  fileFormat: 'SHP'})

Image Collection Processing

Aggregating and Visualizing ImageCollections

Open in Code Editor ↗

// Script showing techniques for visualizing image collections
// using UI elements and animation.

var admin2 = ee.FeatureCollection("FAO/GAUL_SIMPLIFIED_500m/2015/level2");
var selected = admin2
  .filter(ee.Filter.eq('ADM1_NAME', 'Karnataka'))
  .filter(ee.Filter.eq('ADM2_NAME', 'Bangalore Urban'))
var geometry = selected.geometry();
Map.centerObject(geometry)

var s2 = ee.ImageCollection("COPERNICUS/S2_HARMONIZED");

var filtered = s2
  .filter(ee.Filter.lt('CLOUDY_PIXEL_PERCENTAGE', 30))
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry));

// Write a function for Cloud masking
var maskS2clouds = function(image) {
  var qa = image.select('QA60')
  var cloudBitMask = 1 << 10;
  var cirrusBitMask = 1 << 11;
  var mask = qa.bitwiseAnd(cloudBitMask).eq(0).and(
             qa.bitwiseAnd(cirrusBitMask).eq(0))
  return image.updateMask(mask)//.divide(10000)
      .select("B.*")
      .copyProperties(image, ["system:time_start"])
}

// Write a function to scale the bands
var scaleImage = function(image) {
  return image
    .multiply(0.0001)
    .copyProperties(image, ["system:time_start"])
}

var processedCol = filtered
  .map(maskS2clouds)
  .map(scaleImage)

// Aggregate it to yearly composites
var years = ee.List.sequence(2017, 2021);

// Write a function to create yearly composites
var createYearlyComposite = function(year) {
  var startDate = ee.Date.fromYMD(year, 1, 1);
  var endDate = startDate.advance(1, 'year');
  var yearImages = processedCol.filter(
      ee.Filter.date(startDate, endDate));
  var yearComposite = yearImages.median();
  return yearComposite.set({
    'system:time_start': startDate.millis(),
    'system:time_end': endDate.millis(),
    'year': ee.Number(year).format('%04d')})
}

// map() the function to create composite for all years
var yearComposites = years.map(createYearlyComposite)

// Create an ImageCollection from yearly composites
var yearlyCol = ee.ImageCollection.fromImages(yearComposites)
print(yearlyCol);

// Visualize the collection
var rgbVis = {min: 0.0, max: 0.3, bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2']};

// A simple way to visualize is to use ui.Select()
// Our collection has a unique 'year' property
// Use that to create a dropdown

// Display the image with the given year.
var display = function(year) {
  var filtered = yearlyCol.filter(ee.Filter.eq('year', year))
  var image = ee.Image(filtered.first());
  Map.addLayer(image.clip(geometry), rgbVis, 'RGB_Composite_' + year)
}

// Get the list of IDs and put them into a select
yearlyCol.aggregate_array('year').evaluate(function(years) {
  Map.add(ui.Select({
    placeholder: 'Select a year',
    items: years,
    onChange: display
  }))
});

// Another way is to create an animation

// Define a function to convert an image to an RGB visualization
// Clip the image and copy the system:time_start property
var visualizeImage = function(image) {
  return image.visualize(rgbVis).clip(geometry)
    .copyProperties(image,
      ['system:time_start', 'system:time_end', 'year'])
};

var visCol = yearlyCol.map(visualizeImage)

// Define arguments for animation function parameters.
var videoArgs = {
  dimensions: 768,
  region: geometry,
  framesPerSecond: 1,
  crs: 'EPSG:3857',
};
print(ui.Thumbnail(visCol, videoArgs));

Exporting ImageCollections

Open in Code Editor ↗

// Example script showing how to export ImageCollections
// using client-side code for batch image exports.

// This script shows 2 options for exporting ImageCollections
// Option 1: Export Individual Images to Drive
// Option 2: Export ImageCollection to Asset


// If you want to export large number of images, or
// want to automate batch exports, please check 
// the notebook using Python API
// https://courses.spatialthoughts.com/end-to-end-gee.html#batch-exports

// We create a NDVI time-series and export each
// image as a separate GeoTiff file
var s2 = ee.ImageCollection("COPERNICUS/S2_HARMONIZED");
var geometry = ee.Geometry.Polygon([[
  [82.60642647743225, 27.16350437805251],
  [82.60984897613525, 27.1618529901377],
  [82.61088967323303, 27.163695288375266],
  [82.60757446289062, 27.16517483230927]
]]);
Map.addLayer(geometry, {color: 'red'}, 'Farm')
Map.centerObject(geometry)
var rgbVis = {min: 0.0, max: 3000, bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2']};

var filtered = s2
  .filter(ee.Filter.date('2017-01-01', '2018-01-01'))
  .filter(ee.Filter.lt('CLOUDY_PIXEL_PERCENTAGE', 30))
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry))

// Write a function for Cloud masking
function maskS2clouds(image) {
  var qa = image.select('QA60')
  var cloudBitMask = 1 << 10;
  var cirrusBitMask = 1 << 11;
  var mask = qa.bitwiseAnd(cloudBitMask).eq(0).and(
             qa.bitwiseAnd(cirrusBitMask).eq(0))
  return image.updateMask(mask)
      .select("B.*")
      .copyProperties(image, ["system:time_start"])
}

var filtered = filtered.map(maskS2clouds)
// Write a function that computes NDVI for an image and adds it as a band
function addNDVI(image) {
  var ndvi = image.normalizedDifference(['B8', 'B4']).rename('ndvi');
  return image.addBands(ndvi);
}

// Map the function over the collection
var withNdvi = filtered.map(addNDVI);

var exportCol = withNdvi.select('ndvi');

// *************************************************************
// Option 1: Export Individual Images to Drive
// *************************************************************

// The function below exports the images in the collection
// as individual GeoTIFF files to Google Drive

// The key is to use 'evaluate()' to asynchronously get a list
// if image ids and start an export task for each image

var doExportDrive = function() {
  print('Working')
  var ids = exportCol.aggregate_array('system:index');
  // evaluate() will not block the UI and once the result is available
  // will be passed-on to the callback function where we will call
  // Export.image.toDrive()
  ids.evaluate(function(imageIds) {
    print('Total number of images', imageIds.length);
    print('Exporting now... (see Tasks tab)');
    print('Tip: Use Ctrl+Click/Cmd+Click on tasks to skip confirmation.');
    for(var i = 0; i < imageIds.length; i++) {
      
      // Filter using the image id
      var image = ee.Image(exportCol.toList(1, i).get(0));

      Export.image.toDrive({
        image: image,
        region: geometry,
        scale: 10,
        fileNamePrefix: imageIds[i],
        folder: 'earthengine',
        description: 'Export_Drive_' + i + '_' + imageIds[i],
      })
      }
  })
  
}

print('Click button below to start export to Drive')
var button = ui.Button({label: 'Export to Drive', onClick: doExportDrive})
print(button)
Map.centerObject(geometry);

// *************************************************************
// Option 2: Export ImageCollection to Asset
// *************************************************************

// If you want to use the collection in another script
// it is better to export the images as assets.

// This is also recommended for collections that require large
// computation and may time-out. Exporting to Asset will
// result in a pre-computed collection that can be imported and 
// used without these errors.

// First create a new empty collection
// Go to Assets Tab -> New -> Image collection

// Once created, replace below with your own image collection id
var exportAssetColId = 'users/ujavalgandhi/e2e/ndvi_col';

// Next we will export images as assets into this collection
var doExportAsset = function() {
  print('Working');
  var ids = exportCol.aggregate_array('system:index');
  // evaluate() will not block the UI and once the result is available
  // will be passed-on to the callback function where we will call
  // Export.image.toAsset()
  ids.evaluate(function(imageIds) {
    print('Total number of images', imageIds.length);
    print('Exporting now... (see Tasks tab)');
    print('Tip: Use Ctrl+Click/Cmd+Click on tasks to skip confirmation.');
    for(var i = 0; i < imageIds.length; i++) {
      
      // Filter using the image id
      var image = ee.Image(exportCol.toList(1, i).get(0));

      Export.image.toAsset({
        image: image,
        description: 'Export_Asset_' + i + '_' + imageIds[i],
        assetId: exportAssetColId + '/' + imageIds[i],
        region: geometry,
        scale: 10
      });
    }
  });
  
};

print('Click button below to start export to Asset');
var button = ui.Button({label: 'Export to Asset', onClick: doExportAsset});
print(button);

// Once all the exports finish, you can use the resulting collection
// in other scripts just like a regular GEE collection
var exportAssetCol = ee.ImageCollection(exportAssetColId);

Create Composites at Regular Intervals

Open in Code Editor ↗

// Example script showing how to create composite images
// at regular intervals

// Let's create 15-day composites
// Change the parameters below for custom intervals
// i.e. For monthly composites, use interval=1 and unit='month'

// Define the interval
var interval = 15;

// Define the unit of interval
// 'year', 'month' 'week', 'day', 'hour', 'minute', or 'second'.
var unit = 'day';
 
// Define the period
var startDate = ee.Date.fromYMD(2023, 1, 1);
var endDate = ee.Date.fromYMD(2024, 1, 1);

// Get the total units in the period
var totalUnits = endDate.difference(startDate, unit);
print('Total ' + unit, totalUnits);

// Create a list of dates at start of each interval
var intervals = ee.List.sequence(0, totalUnits, interval);

var startDates = intervals.map(function(interval) {
  var intervalStart = startDate.advance(interval, unit);
  return intervalStart;
});

print('Start dates for each interval', startDates);

// Now we create the composites

// Define collection and apply filters
var s2 = ee.ImageCollection("COPERNICUS/S2_SR_HARMONIZED")
var basin = ee.FeatureCollection("WWF/HydroSHEDS/v1/Basins/hybas_7")
var arkavathy = basin.filter(ee.Filter.eq('HYBAS_ID', 4071139640))
var geometry = arkavathy.geometry()
Map.centerObject(geometry, 11)

// Function to remove cloud pixels from Sentinel-2 SR image 
function maskCloudAndShadowsSR(image) {
  var cloudProb = image.select('MSK_CLDPRB');
  var snowProb = image.select('MSK_SNWPRB');
  var cloud = cloudProb.lt(10);
  var scl = image.select('SCL'); 
  var shadow = scl.eq(3); // 3 = cloud shadow
  var cirrus = scl.eq(10); // 10 = cirrus
  // Cloud probability less than 10% or cloud shadow classification
  var mask = cloud.and(cirrus.neq(1)).and(shadow.neq(1));
  return image.updateMask(mask).divide(10000)
    .copyProperties(image, ['system:time_start']);
}

var filtered = s2
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry))
  .map(maskCloudAndShadowsSR)

// We map() a function that takes each date from the startDates
// and applies a filter for images in that interval
var compositeImages = startDates.map(function(startDate) {
  var intervalStartDate = ee.Date(startDate);
  var intervalEndDate = intervalStartDate.advance(interval, unit);
  // Remember that end dates are not included in EE Filters
  // So we get images upto the end date. 
  var intervalFiltered = filtered.filter(
    ee.Filter.date(intervalStartDate, intervalEndDate));
  // Count the number of images
  // This will be used later to filter out
  // composites with no matching images
  var intervalImageCount = intervalFiltered.size();
  var composite = intervalFiltered.median();
  return composite.set({
    'system:time_start': intervalStartDate.millis(),
    'system:time_end': intervalEndDate.millis(),
    'start_date': intervalStartDate.format('YYYY-MM-dd'),
    'end_date': intervalEndDate.format('YYYY-MM-dd'),
    'image_count': intervalImageCount
  });
});

var compositeCol = ee.ImageCollection.fromImages(compositeImages);

var compositeColFiltered = compositeCol.filter(
  ee.Filter.neq('image_count', 0));

print('Composites at ' + interval + ' ' + unit + ' intervals',
  compositeColFiltered);

Get Pixelwise Dates for Composites

Open in Code Editor ↗

// Example script showing how to determine the date of each pixel
// in a composite image

// Select a region
var admin1 = ee.FeatureCollection('FAO/GAUL_SIMPLIFIED_500m/2015/level1');
var karnataka = admin1.filter(ee.Filter.eq('ADM1_NAME', 'Karnataka'));
var geometry = karnataka.geometry();

// Use the Sentinel-2 collection 
var s2 = ee.ImageCollection('COPERNICUS/S2_HARMONIZED');

// Write a function for Cloud masking
var maskS2clouds = function(image) {
  var qa = image.select('QA60')
  var cloudBitMask = 1 << 10;
  var cirrusBitMask = 1 << 11;
  var mask = qa.bitwiseAnd(cloudBitMask).eq(0).and(
             qa.bitwiseAnd(cirrusBitMask).eq(0))
  return image.updateMask(mask)
      .select('B.*')
      .copyProperties(image, ['system:time_start'])
}

// Write a function to apply the scaling factor to
// each of the bands to get reflectance values
var scaleImage = function(image) {
  return image
    .multiply(0.0001)
    .copyProperties(image, ['system:time_start'])
}


// Write a function that computes NDVI for an image and adds it as a band
// We also add negative ndvi so we can find date of lowest NDVI
function addNDVI(image) {
  var ndvi = image.normalizedDifference(['B8', 'B4']).rename('ndvi');
  var invertNdvi = ndvi.multiply(-1).rename('invertndvi');
  return image.addBands([ndvi, invertNdvi]);
}
// Write a function to add date band
var addDateBand = function(image) {
  // Create an image with day of the year as value
  var date = ee.Date(image.get('system:time_start'));
  // Create an image where each pixel's value is the
  // timestamp of the image date
  var dateImage = ee.Image.constant(date.millis()).rename(['timestamp']).toFloat();
  // We can also create an image where each pixel has the value
  // equivalent to the day of the year of the image date
  var doy = date.getRelative('day', 'year');
  var doyImage = ee.Image.constant(doy).rename(['doy']).toFloat();
  return image.addBands([dateImage, doyImage]);
};

// Filter and pre-process the collection
var filtered = s2
  .filter(ee.Filter.date('2019-01-01', '2020-01-01'))
  .filter(ee.Filter.lt('CLOUDY_PIXEL_PERCENTAGE', 30))
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry))
  .map(maskS2clouds)
  .map(scaleImage)
  .map(addNDVI)
  .map(addDateBand);
  
// Create a composite with highest and lowest NDVI per pixel
var maxNdvi = filtered.qualityMosaic('ndvi')
var minNdvi = filtered.qualityMosaic('invertndvi')

// We select the 'doy' band
// The DOY images have a pixel value equivalent to day of the year
// of the image from which the pixel was used.
var maxDoy = maxNdvi.select('doy');
var minDoy = minNdvi.select('doy');

//  Visualize the results

// First add the collection so we can validate the results
// by inspecting pixel values
Map.addLayer(filtered.select('ndvi'), {}, 'Full Collection', false);

Map.centerObject(geometry, 10);
var palette = ['#fef0d9','#fdcc8a','#fc8d59','#e34a33','#b30000'];
var doyVis = {min:0, max:365, palette: palette}
Map.addLayer(minDoy.clip(geometry), doyVis, 'DOY of Minimum NDVI');
Map.addLayer(maxDoy.clip(geometry), doyVis, 'DOY of Maximum NDVI');

  

Filter Images by Cloud Cover in a Region

This script shows how to calculate the cloud cover in a region, and set an image property with the cloud cover for a given region. We can then apply a filter to select images having no cloud cover in the region. This is useful where you are working in a very cloudy region and want to ensure that you are filtering for clouds in your region of interest, instead of the whole scene.

Open in Code Editor ↗

var geometry = ee.Geometry.Polygon([[
    [77.4783, 13.0848],
    [77.4783, 12.8198],
    [77.7502, 12.8198],
    [77.7502, 13.0848]]
]);
          
var s2 = ee.ImageCollection('COPERNICUS/S2_HARMONIZED');

Map.addLayer(geometry, {color: 'red'}, 'Selected Region');
Map.centerObject(geometry);

var filtered = s2
  .filter(ee.Filter.date('2019-01-01', '2020-01-01'))
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry));

// Write a function for Cloud masking
function maskS2clouds(image) {
  var qa = image.select('QA60');
  var cloudBitMask = 1 << 10;
  var cirrusBitMask = 1 << 11;
  var mask = qa.bitwiseAnd(cloudBitMask).eq(0).and(
             qa.bitwiseAnd(cirrusBitMask).eq(0));
  return image.updateMask(mask)
      .select('B.*')
      .copyProperties(image, ['system:time_start']);
}

print('Total images', filtered.size());

// Add a function that adds a property to each image
// with the cloud cover in the chosen geometry
var calculateCloudCover = function(image) {
  // Apply the cloud mask function
  var maskedImage = ee.Image(maskS2clouds(image));
  // The image now has some pixels that are masked
  // We count the number of unmasked pixels
  // Select any band, since all bands have the same mask
  // Working with a single band maes the analysis simpler
  var bandName = 'B1';
  var band = maskedImage.select(bandName);
  var withMaskStats = band.reduceRegion({
    reducer: ee.Reducer.count(),
    geometry: geometry,
    scale: 10
  });
  var cloudFreePixels = withMaskStats.getNumber(bandName);
  
  // Remove the mask and count all pixels
  var withoutMaskStats = band.unmask(0).reduceRegion({
    reducer: ee.Reducer.count(),
    geometry: geometry,
    scale: 10
  });
  
  var totalPixels = withoutMaskStats.getNumber('B1');
  
  var cloudCoverPercentage = ee.Number.expression(
    '100*(totalPixels-cloudFreePixels)/totalPixels', {
      totalPixels: totalPixels,
      cloudFreePixels: cloudFreePixels
    });
  return image.set({
    'CLOUDY_PIXEL_PERCENTAGE_REGION': cloudCoverPercentage
  });
};

var filteredWithCount = filtered.map(calculateCloudCover);

print(filteredWithCount.first());

// Filter using the newly created property
var cloudFreeImages = filteredWithCount
  .filter(ee.Filter.eq('CLOUDY_PIXEL_PERCENTAGE_REGION', 0));
print('Cloud Free Images in Region', cloudFreeImages.size());

Harmonized Landsat Time Series

Open in Code Editor ↗

// Script showing how to obtain a harmonized Landsat Time-Series
// using Landsat Collection 2
var geometry = ee.Geometry.Polygon([[
  [82.60642647743225, 27.16350437805251],
  [82.60984897613525, 27.1618529901377],
  [82.61088967323303, 27.163695288375266],
  [82.60757446289062, 27.16517483230927]
]]);

// ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
// Step 1: Select the Landsat dataset
// ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

// We use "Landsat Level 2 Collection 2 Tier-1 Scenes"

// Collection 2 -->
// Landsat Collection 2 algorithm has improved
// geometric and radiometric calibration that makes
// the collections interoperable.
// Learn more at https://www.usgs.gov/landsat-missions/landsat-collection-2

// Level 2 -->
// This is a surface reflectance product and 
// have the highest level of interoperability through time.

// Tier 1 -->
// Highest quality scenes which are considered suitable
// for time-series analysis
var L5 = ee.ImageCollection('LANDSAT/LT05/C02/T1_L2');
var L7 = ee.ImageCollection('LANDSAT/LE07/C02/T1_L2');
var L8 = ee.ImageCollection('LANDSAT/LC08/C02/T1_L2');

// ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
// Step 2: Data Pre-Processing and Cloud Masking
// ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

// Mapping of band-names to a uniform naming scheme
var l5Bands = ['SR_B1','SR_B2','SR_B3','SR_B4','SR_B5','SR_B7'];
var l5names = ['blue','green','red','nir','swir1','swir2'];

var l7Bands = ['SR_B1','SR_B2','SR_B3','SR_B4','SR_B5','SR_B7'];
var l7names = ['blue','green','red','nir','swir1','swir2'];

var l8Bands = ['SR_B2','SR_B3','SR_B4','SR_B5','SR_B6','SR_B7'];
var l8names = ['blue','green','red','nir','swir1','swir2'];

// Cloud masking function for Landsat 4,5 and 7
function maskL457sr(image) {
  var qaMask = image.select('QA_PIXEL').bitwiseAnd(parseInt('11111', 2)).eq(0);
  var saturationMask = image.select('QA_RADSAT').eq(0);

  // Apply the scaling factors to the appropriate bands.
  var opticalBands = image.select('SR_B.').multiply(0.0000275).add(-0.2);
  var thermalBand = image.select('ST_B6').multiply(0.00341802).add(149.0);

  // Replace the original bands with the scaled ones and apply the masks.
  return image.addBands(opticalBands, null, true)
      .addBands(thermalBand, null, true)
      .updateMask(qaMask)
      .updateMask(saturationMask)
      .copyProperties(image, ['system:time_start']);
}

// Cloud masking function for Landsat 8
function maskL8sr(image) {
  var qaMask = image.select('QA_PIXEL').bitwiseAnd(parseInt('11111', 2)).eq(0);
  var saturationMask = image.select('QA_RADSAT').eq(0);

  // Apply the scaling factors to the appropriate bands.
  var opticalBands = image.select('SR_B.').multiply(0.0000275).add(-0.2);
  var thermalBands = image.select('ST_B.*').multiply(0.00341802).add(149.0);

  // Replace the original bands with the scaled ones and apply the masks.
  return image.addBands(opticalBands, null, true)
      .addBands(thermalBands, null, true)
      .updateMask(qaMask)
      .updateMask(saturationMask)
      .copyProperties(image, ['system:time_start']);
}

// Apply cloud-mask and rename bands
var L5 = L5
  .map(maskL457sr)
  .select(l5Bands,l5names)

var L7 = L7
  .map(maskL457sr)
  .select(l7Bands,l7names)

var L8 = L8
  .map(maskL8sr)
  .select(l8Bands,l8names)

// ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
// Step 3a: Verify Radiometric Calibration
// ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
// We plot band values from different satellites during
// times when both were operational.

// Compare L5 and L7
var L5Filtered = L5
  .filter(ee.Filter.date('2005-01-01', '2006-01-01'))
  .select(['red', 'nir'], ['red_L5', 'nir_L5']);

var L7Filtered = L7
  .filter(ee.Filter.date('2005-01-01', '2006-01-01'))
  .select(['red', 'nir'], ['red_L7', 'nir_L7']);

var L5L7merged = L5Filtered.merge(L7Filtered)

var chart = ui.Chart.image.series({
  imageCollection: L5L7merged,
  region: geometry,
  reducer: ee.Reducer.mean(),
  scale: 30
}).setChartType('LineChart')
  .setOptions({
    title: 'Landsat 5 vs Landsat 7',
    interpolateNulls: true,
    vAxis: {title: 'Reflectance', viewWindow: {min: 0, max: 0.5}},
    hAxis: {title: '', format: 'YYYY-MM'},
    lineWidth: 1,
    pointSize: 4,
    lineDashStyle: [4, 4]
  })
print(chart);

// Compare L7 and L8
var L7Filtered = L7
  .filter(ee.Filter.date('2016-01-01', '2017-01-01'))
  .select(['red', 'nir'], ['red_L7', 'nir_L7']);

var L8Filtered = L8
  .filter(ee.Filter.date('2016-01-01', '2017-01-01'))
  .select(['red', 'nir'], ['red_L8', 'nir_L8']);

var L7L8merged = L7Filtered.merge(L8Filtered)

var chart = ui.Chart.image.series({
  imageCollection: L7L8merged,
  region: geometry,
  reducer: ee.Reducer.mean(),
  scale: 30
}).setChartType('LineChart')
  .setOptions({
    title: 'Landsat 7 vs Landsat 8',
    interpolateNulls: true,
    vAxis: {title: 'Reflectance', viewWindow: {min: 0, max: 0.5}},
    hAxis: {title: '', format: 'YYYY-MM'},
    lineWidth: 1,
    pointSize: 4,
    lineDashStyle: [4, 4]
  })
print(chart);

// ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
// Step 3b: Select Date Ranges, Filter and Merge
// ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
// See the Landsat timeline for date ranges
// https://www.usgs.gov/media/images/landsat-missions-timeline

// Adjust the range depending on your 
// application and location
var l5Start = ee.Date.fromYMD(1990, 1, 1);
var l5End = ee.Date.fromYMD(1999, 1, 1);

var l7Start = ee.Date.fromYMD(1999, 1, 1);
var l7End = ee.Date.fromYMD(2014, 1, 1);

var l8Start = ee.Date.fromYMD(2014, 1, 1);
var l8End = ee.Date.fromYMD(2023, 1, 1);

var L5 = L5
  .filter(ee.Filter.date(l5Start, l5End))
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry));

var L7 = L7
  .filter(ee.Filter.date(l7Start, l7End))
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry));

var L8 = L8
  .filter(ee.Filter.date(l8Start, l8End))
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry));
  
var merged = L5.merge(L7).merge(L8)

// ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
// Step 4: Create Annual Composites
// ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
var years = ee.List.sequence(1990, 2023);

var compositeImages = years.map(function(year) {
  var startDate = ee.Date.fromYMD(year, 1, 1);
  var endDate = startDate.advance(1, 'year');
  var yearFiltered = merged.filter(ee.Filter.date(startDate, endDate));
  var composite = yearFiltered.median();
  return composite.set({
    'year': year,
    'system:time_start': startDate.millis(),
    'system:time_end': endDate.millis(),
  })
});

var compositeCol = ee.ImageCollection.fromImages(compositeImages);
print('Annual Landsat Composites', compositeCol);

Visualize Number of Images in Composites

Open in Code Editor ↗

// Exploring Composite Images
// Example script showing 
// 1. How to visualize the DOY (day-of-year) of each pixel of a composite
// 2. How to visualize count of images at each pixel of a composite
var admin1 = ee.FeatureCollection('FAO/GAUL_SIMPLIFIED_500m/2015/level1');
var karnataka = admin1.filter(ee.Filter.eq('ADM1_NAME', 'Karnataka'));
var geometry = karnataka.geometry();

var s2 =ee.ImageCollection('COPERNICUS/S2_HARMONIZED');

var rgbVis = {
  min: 0.0,
  max: 3000,
  bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2'],
};


var filtered = s2.filter(ee.Filter.lt('CLOUDY_PIXEL_PERCENTAGE', 30))
  .filter(ee.Filter.date('2019-01-01', '2020-01-01'))
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry));

// Add a band to each image indicating the DOY of each image
var filteredWithDoyBand = filtered.map(function(image) {
  // Create an image with day of the year as value
  var date = ee.Date(image.get('system:time_start'));
  var day = date.getRelative('day', 'year');
  var dayImage = ee.Image.constant(day).rename(['dayofyear']).int().clip(image.geometry());
  return image.addBands([dayImage]);
});

var composite = filteredWithDoyBand.median();

Map.centerObject(geometry, 8);
Map.addLayer(composite.clip(geometry), rgbVis, '2019 Median Composite')


// Visualize which pixels contribute to the composite
var dateImage = composite.select('dayofyear').int();

var doyVis = {
  min:20,
  max: 100,
  palette: ['d7191c','fdae61','ffffbf','a6d96a','1a9641']
}
Map.addLayer(dateImage.clip(geometry), doyVis, 'DOY of Each Pixel in Composite');

// Visualize the number of images contributing to each pixel 
// of the composite
// Select a single band and use count()
var count = filtered.select(['B4']).count();

// show image count
var countVis = {
    min: 50,
    max: 100,
    palette: ['#fee5d9','#fcae91','#fb6a4a','#de2d26','#a50f15']
}
Map.addLayer(count.clip(geometry), countVis, 'Number of S2 Scenes')

Advanced Image Processing

Working with Landsat Collection 2

Open in Code Editor ↗

// Example script for calculating NDVI and EVI from Landsat Collection 2 images

// Get Banglore boundary 
var admin2 = ee.FeatureCollection("FAO/GAUL_SIMPLIFIED_500m/2015/level2");
 
var bangalore = admin2.filter(ee.Filter.eq('ADM2_NAME', 'Bangalore Urban'))
var geometry = bangalore.geometry()

// Applies cloud mask and scaling factors.
function maskL8sr(image) {
  // Bit 0 - Fill
  // Bit 1 - Dilated Cloud
  // Bit 2 - Cirrus
  // Bit 3 - Cloud
  // Bit 4 - Cloud Shadow
  var qaMask = image.select('QA_PIXEL').bitwiseAnd(parseInt('11111', 2)).eq(0);
  var saturationMask = image.select('QA_RADSAT').eq(0);

  // Apply the scaling factors to the appropriate bands.
  var opticalBands = image.select('SR_B.').multiply(0.0000275).add(-0.2);
  var thermalBands = image.select('ST_B.*').multiply(0.00341802).add(149.0);

  // Replace the original bands with the scaled ones and apply the masks.
  return image.addBands(opticalBands, null, true)
      .addBands(thermalBands, null, true)
      .updateMask(qaMask)
      .updateMask(saturationMask);
}

// Filter to 2021 Landsat 8 images over banglore. 
var dataset = ee.ImageCollection('LANDSAT/LC08/C02/T1_L2')
    .filter(ee.Filter.date('2021-01-01', '2022-01-01'))
    .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry))
    .map(maskL8sr);

// Create a median composite
var image = dataset.median(); 

// Print to check the bands. 
print(image)

// Create NDVI image. 
var ndvi = image.normalizedDifference(['SR_B5', 'SR_B4']).rename(['ndvi'])

// Create MNDWI image. 
var mndwi = image.normalizedDifference(['SR_B3', 'SR_B6']).rename(['mndwi'])

// Create EVI image
// EVI = 2.5 * ((Band 5 – Band 4) / (Band 5 + 6 * Band 4 – 7.5 * Band 2 + 1)).
var evi = image.expression(
    '2.5 * ( (NIR - RED) / (NIR + 6 * RED - 7.5 * BLUE + 1))', {
      'BLUE': image.select('SR_B2'),
      'RED': image.select('SR_B4'),
      'NIR': image.select('SR_B5')
}).rename('evi');

// Create MNDWI image

// Visualization parameter. 
var rgbVis = {min:0, max:0.3, bands:['SR_B4', 'SR_B3', 'SR_B2']}
var ndviVis = {min:0, max:0.5,  palette: ['white', 'green']}
var ndwiVis = {min:0, max:0.5,  palette: ['white', 'blue']}

// Add EVI and NDVI images to Map. 
Map.centerObject(geometry)
Map.addLayer(image.clip(geometry), rgbVis, 'Image')
Map.addLayer(evi.clip(geometry), ndviVis, 'EVI')
Map.addLayer(ndvi.clip(geometry), ndviVis, 'NDVI')
Map.addLayer(mndwi.clip(geometry), ndwiVis, 'MNDWI')

Derive LST from Landsat Images

Many researchers are interested in studying the effects of climate change and the urban environment. Landsat sensors have thermal bands which makes it possible to study these interactions at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The script below shows how to compute LST using two different methods.

The script generates a map of land surface temperature distribution along with a time series for different land surfaces.

LST Time-Series for Different Landcovers

LST Time-Series for Different Landcovers

Open in Code Editor ↗

// Script showing how to obtain a Landsat LST Time-Series
// over different land surfaces

var metalroof = ee.Geometry.Point([72.8550936937685, 19.044646120301234]);
var concreteroof =  ee.Geometry.Point([72.85441764267667, 19.028290540890772]);
var airport = ee.Geometry.Point([72.86249644714638, 19.09355985643176]);
var water = ee.Geometry.Point([72.91107782264197, 19.152799035509638]);
var mangrove =  ee.Geometry.Point([72.8115905761819, 19.152316393168405]);
    
// Use Mumbai city boundary
var mumbai_wards = ee.FeatureCollection(
  'users/ujavalgandhi/public/mumbai_bmc_wards_datameet');
var geometry = mumbai_wards.geometry();
Map.centerObject(geometry, 12);

// Method 1
// LST Computation code by Sofia Ermida (sofia.ermida@ipma.pt; @ermida_sofia)

// Ermida, S.L., Soares, P., Mantas, V., Göttsche, F.-M., Trigo, I.F., 2020. 
//     Google Earth Engine open-source code for Land Surface Temperature estimation from the Landsat series.
//     Remote Sensing, 12 (9), 1471; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12091471
var LandsatLST = require('users/sofiaermida/landsat_smw_lst:modules/Landsat_LST.js')

// Set parameters to get Landsat 8 data
var satellite = 'L8';
var date_start = '2015-01-01';
var date_end = '2016-01-01';
var use_ndvi = true;

// get landsat collection with added variables: NDVI, FVC, TPW, EM, LST
var LandsatColl = LandsatLST.collection(satellite, date_start, date_end, geometry, use_ndvi)

// Select LST band
var lstK = LandsatColl.select('LST')

// Convert to celsius
var lstC = lstK.map(function(image){
  return image.subtract(273.15).copyProperties(image, image.propertyNames())
})


// Filter to May month image to visualize in map. 
var lstMay  = lstC
  .filter(ee.Filter.date('2015-04-01', '2015-05-01'))
  .mean()

Map.addLayer(lstMay.clip(geometry), 
  {min:25, max:45, palette:['green','yellow','red']}, 
  'Landsat-LST (Ermida, S.L)')

// Create the LSt time series chart. 
var chart = ui.Chart.image.seriesByRegion({
  imageCollection:lstC,  
  regions: [airport, metalroof, concreteroof, mangrove, water],
  reducer:ee.Reducer.mean(),
  band:['LST'],
  scale:30,  
  xProperty:'system:time_start',
}).setOptions({
      lineWidth: 1,
      title: 'Land Surface Temperature Time-Series (Ermida, S.L)',
      interpolateNulls: true,
      viewWindowMode:'explicit',
        viewWindow: {
            max:50,
            min:25
        },
      vAxis: {title: 'LST (°C)'},
      hAxis: {title: '', format: 'YYYY-MMM'},
      series: {
      0: {color: 'red', labelInLegend: 'Airport Tarmac'}, 
      1: {color: 'pink', labelInLegend: 'Residential-Slum (Metal Roof)'}, 
      2: {color: 'grey', labelInLegend: 'Residential (Concrete Roof)'},
      3: {color: 'green', labelInLegend: 'Mangrove'},
      4: {color: 'blue', labelInLegend: 'Water'}
    } 
    })
  
print(chart);

// Method 2
// Landsat Collection 2 Level 2 LST

var date_start = '2015-01-01';
var date_end = '2016-01-01';

var dataset = ee.ImageCollection('LANDSAT/LC08/C02/T1_L2')
    .filterDate(date_start, date_end)
    .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry))
    
function maskL8sr(image) {
  // Bit 0 - Fill
  // Bit 1 - Dilated Cloud
  // Bit 2 - Cirrus
  // Bit 3 - Cloud
  // Bit 4 - Cloud Shadow
  var qaMask = image.select('QA_PIXEL').bitwiseAnd(parseInt('11111', 2)).eq(0);
  var saturationMask = image.select('QA_RADSAT').eq(0);

  // Apply the scaling factors to the appropriate bands.
  var opticalBands = image.select('SR_B.').multiply(0.0000275).add(-0.2);
  var thermalBands = image.select('ST_B.*').multiply(0.00341802).add(149.0);

  // Replace the original bands with the scaled ones and apply the masks.
  return image.addBands(opticalBands, null, true)
      .addBands(thermalBands, null, true)
      .updateMask(qaMask)
      .updateMask(saturationMask);
}


dataset = dataset.map(maskL8sr)

// Select B10 band and rename it to LST
var lstK = dataset.select(['ST_B10'], ['LST'])

// Convert to celsius
var lstC = lstK.map(function(image){
  return image.subtract(273.15).copyProperties(image, image.propertyNames())
})


// Filter to May month image to visualize in map. 
var lstMay  = lstC
  .filter(ee.Filter.date('2015-04-01', '2015-05-01')).mean()

Map.addLayer(lstMay.clip(geometry),
  {min:25, max:45, palette:['green','yellow','red']},
  'Landsat-LST (Landsat Collection 2)')

// Create the LSt time series chart. 
var chart = ui.Chart.image.seriesByRegion({
  imageCollection:lstC,  
  regions: [airport, metalroof, concreteroof, mangrove, water],
  reducer:ee.Reducer.mean(),
  band:['LST'],
  scale:30,  
  xProperty:'system:time_start',
}).setOptions({
      lineWidth: 1,
      title: 'Land Surface Temperature Time-Series (Landsat Collection 2)',
      interpolateNulls: true,
      viewWindowMode:'explicit',
        viewWindow: {
            max:50,
            min:25
        },
      vAxis: {title: 'LST (°C)'},
      hAxis: {title: '', format: 'YYYY-MMM'},
      series: {
      0: {color: 'red', labelInLegend: 'Airport Tarmac'}, 
      1: {color: 'pink', labelInLegend: 'Residential-Slum (Metal Roof)'}, 
      2: {color: 'grey', labelInLegend: 'Residential (Concrete Roof)'},
      3: {color: 'green', labelInLegend: 'Mangrove'},
      4: {color: 'blue', labelInLegend: 'Water'}
    } 
    })
  
print(chart);

Time-Series Smoothing and Gap-filling

Moving Window Smoothing

A technique applied to a time series for removal of the fine-grained variation between time steps is known as Smoothing. This example shows how a moving-window smoothing algorithm can be applied in Earth Engine. Using a Save-all Join, the collection is joined with itself and all images that fall within the temporal-window are added as a property of each image. Next, a mean reducer is applied on all the images, resulting in the average value of the pixel within the time-frame. The resulting time-series reduces the sharp peaks and valleys - and is more robust against outliers (such as cloudy pixels)

Moving Window Average Smoothing

Moving Window Average Smoothing

Open in Code Editor ↗

// Moving-Window Temporal Smoothing 
var s2 = ee.ImageCollection('COPERNICUS/S2_HARMONIZED');
var geometry = ee.Geometry.Point([74.80368345518073, 30.391793042969]);

var startDate = ee.Date.fromYMD(2019, 1, 1);
var endDate = ee.Date.fromYMD(2021, 1, 1);

// Function to add a NDVI band to an image
function addNDVI(image) {
  var ndvi = image.normalizedDifference(['B8', 'B4']).rename('ndvi');
  return image.addBands(ndvi);
} 

// Function to mask clouds
function maskS2clouds(image) {
  var qa = image.select('QA60')
  var cloudBitMask = 1 << 10;
  var cirrusBitMask = 1 << 11;
  var mask = qa.bitwiseAnd(cloudBitMask).eq(0).and(
             qa.bitwiseAnd(cirrusBitMask).eq(0))
  return image.updateMask(mask).divide(10000)
      .select("B.*")
      .copyProperties(image, ["system:time_start"])
}

var originalCollection = s2
  .filter(ee.Filter.date(startDate, endDate))
  .filter(ee.Filter.lt('CLOUDY_PIXEL_PERCENTAGE', 30))
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry))
  .map(maskS2clouds)
  .map(addNDVI);

// Display a time-series chart
var chart = ui.Chart.image.series({
  imageCollection: originalCollection.select('ndvi'),
  region: geometry,
  reducer: ee.Reducer.mean(),
  scale: 20
}).setOptions({
      title: 'Original NDVI Time Series',
      interpolateNulls: false,
      vAxis: {title: 'NDVI', viewWindow: {min: 0, max: 1}},
      hAxis: {title: '', format: 'YYYY-MM'},
      lineWidth: 1,
      pointSize: 4,
      series: {
        0: {color: '#238b45'},
      },

    })
print(chart);

// Moving-Window Smoothing

// Specify the time-window
var days = 15;

// Convert to milliseconds 
var millis = ee.Number(days).multiply(1000*60*60*24);

// We use a 'save-all join' to find all images 
// that are within the time-window

// The join will add all matching images into a
// new property called 'images'
var join = ee.Join.saveAll({
  matchesKey: 'images'
});

// This filter will match all images that are captured
// within the specified day of the source image
var diffFilter = ee.Filter.maxDifference({
  difference: millis,
  leftField: 'system:time_start', 
  rightField: 'system:time_start'
});


var joinedCollection = join.apply({
  primary: originalCollection, 
  secondary: originalCollection, 
  condition: diffFilter
});

print('Joined Collection', joinedCollection);

// Each image in the joined collection will contain
// matching images in the 'images' property
// Extract and return the mean of matched images
var extractAndComputeMean = function(image) {
  var matchingImages = ee.ImageCollection.fromImages(image.get('images'));
  var meanImage = matchingImages.reduce(
    ee.Reducer.mean().setOutputs(['moving_average']))
  return ee.Image(image).addBands(meanImage)
}

var smoothedCollection = ee.ImageCollection(
  joinedCollection.map(extractAndComputeMean));

print('Smoothed Collection', smoothedCollection)

// Display a time-series chart
var chart = ui.Chart.image.series({
  imageCollection: smoothedCollection.select(['ndvi', 'ndvi_moving_average']),
  region: geometry,
  reducer: ee.Reducer.mean(),
  scale: 20
}).setOptions({
      title: 'NDVI Time Series',
      interpolateNulls: false,
      vAxis: {title: 'NDVI', viewWindow: {min: 0, max: 1}},
      hAxis: {title: '', format: 'YYYY-MM'},
      lineWidth: 1,
      pointSize: 4,
      series: {
        0: {color: '#66c2a4', lineDashStyle: [1, 1], pointSize: 2}, // Original NDVI
        1: {color: '#238b45', lineWidth: 2 }, // Smoothed NDVI
      },

    })
print(chart);

// Let's export the NDVI time-series as a video
var palette = ['#d73027','#f46d43','#fdae61','#fee08b',
  '#ffffbf','#d9ef8b','#a6d96a','#66bd63','#1a9850'];
var ndviVis = {min:-0.2, max: 0.8,  palette: palette}

Map.centerObject(geometry, 16);
var bbox = Map.getBounds({asGeoJSON: true});

var visualizeImage = function(image) {
  return image.visualize(ndviVis).clip(bbox).selfMask()
}

var visCollectionOriginal = originalCollection.select('ndvi')
  .map(visualizeImage)


var visCollectionSmoothed = smoothedCollection.select('ndvi_moving_average')
  .map(visualizeImage)


Export.video.toDrive({
  collection: visCollectionOriginal,
  description: 'Original_Time_Series',
  folder: 'earthengine',
  fileNamePrefix: 'original',
  framesPerSecond: 2,
  dimensions: 800,
  region: bbox})
  
Export.video.toDrive({
  collection: visCollectionSmoothed,
  description: 'Smoothed_Time_Series',
  folder: 'earthengine',
  fileNamePrefix: 'smoothed',
  framesPerSecond: 2,
  dimensions: 800,
  region: bbox})

Temporal Interpolation

The code below shows how to do temporal gap-filling of time-series data. A detailed explanation of the code and other examples are described in our blog post Temporal Gap-Filling with Linear Interpolation in GEE.

Open in Code Editor ↗

// Temporal Interpolation (Gap-Filling Masked Pixels)
var s2 = ee.ImageCollection('COPERNICUS/S2_HARMONIZED');
var geometry = ee.Geometry.Point([74.80368345518073, 30.391793042969]);

var startDate = ee.Date.fromYMD(2019, 1, 1);
var endDate = ee.Date.fromYMD(2021, 1, 1);

// Function to add a NDVI band to an image
function addNDVI(image) {
  var ndvi = image.normalizedDifference(['B8', 'B4']).rename('ndvi');
  return image.addBands(ndvi);
} 

// Function to mask clouds
function maskS2clouds(image) {
  var qa = image.select('QA60')
  var cloudBitMask = 1 << 10;
  var cirrusBitMask = 1 << 11;
  var mask = qa.bitwiseAnd(cloudBitMask).eq(0).and(
             qa.bitwiseAnd(cirrusBitMask).eq(0))
  return image.updateMask(mask).divide(10000)
      .select("B.*")
      .copyProperties(image, ["system:time_start"])
}

var originalCollection = s2
  .filter(ee.Filter.date(startDate, endDate))
  .filter(ee.Filter.lt('CLOUDY_PIXEL_PERCENTAGE', 30))
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry))
  .map(maskS2clouds)
  .map(addNDVI);


// Display a time-series chart
var chart = ui.Chart.image.series({
  imageCollection: originalCollection.select('ndvi'),
  region: geometry,
  reducer: ee.Reducer.mean(),
  scale: 20
}).setOptions({
      title: 'Original NDVI Time Series',
      interpolateNulls: false,
      vAxis: {title: 'NDVI', viewWindow: {min: 0, max: 1}},
      hAxis: {title: '', format: 'YYYY-MM'},
      lineWidth: 1,
      pointSize: 4,
      series: {
        0: {color: '#238b45'},
      },

    })
print(chart);

// Gap-filling

// Add a band containing timestamp to each image
// This will be used to do pixel-wise interpolation later
var originalCollection = originalCollection.map(function(image) {
  var timeImage = image.metadata('system:time_start').rename('timestamp')
  // The time image doesn't have a mask. 
  // We set the mask of the time band to be the same as the first band of the image
  var timeImageMasked = timeImage.updateMask(image.mask().select(0))
  return image.addBands(timeImageMasked).toFloat();
})

// For each image in the collection, we need to find all images
// before and after the specified time-window

// This is accomplished using Joins
// We need to do 2 joins
// Join 1: Join the collection with itself to find all images before each image
// Join 2: Join the collection with itself to find all images after each image

// We first define the filters needed for the join

// Define a maxDifference filter to find all images within the specified days
// The filter needs the time difference in milliseconds
// Convert days to milliseconds

// Specify the time-window to look for unmasked pixel
var days = 45;
var millis = ee.Number(days).multiply(1000*60*60*24)

var maxDiffFilter = ee.Filter.maxDifference({
  difference: millis,
  leftField: 'system:time_start',
  rightField: 'system:time_start'
})

// We need a lessThanOrEquals filter to find all images after a given image
// This will compare the given image's timestamp against other images' timestamps
var lessEqFilter = ee.Filter.lessThanOrEquals({
  leftField: 'system:time_start',
  rightField: 'system:time_start'
})

// We need a greaterThanOrEquals filter to find all images before a given image
// This will compare the given image's timestamp against other images' timestamps
var greaterEqFilter = ee.Filter.greaterThanOrEquals({
  leftField: 'system:time_start',
  rightField: 'system:time_start'
})


// Apply the joins

// For the first join, we need to match all images that are after the given image.
// To do this we need to match 2 conditions
// 1. The resulting images must be within the specified time-window of target image
// 2. The target image's timestamp must be lesser than the timestamp of resulting images
// Combine two filters to match both these conditions
var filter1 = ee.Filter.and(maxDiffFilter, lessEqFilter)
// This join will find all images after, sorted in descending order
// This will gives us images so that closest is last
var join1 = ee.Join.saveAll({
  matchesKey: 'after',
  ordering: 'system:time_start',
  ascending: false})
  
var join1Result = join1.apply({
  primary: originalCollection,
  secondary: originalCollection,
  condition: filter1
})
// Each image now as a property called 'after' containing
// all images that come after it within the time-window
print(join1Result.first())

// Do the second join now to match all images within the time-window
// that come before each image
var filter2 = ee.Filter.and(maxDiffFilter, greaterEqFilter)
// This join will find all images before, sorted in ascending order
// This will gives us images so that closest is last
var join2 = ee.Join.saveAll({
  matchesKey: 'before',
  ordering: 'system:time_start',
  ascending: true})
  
var join2Result = join2.apply({
  primary: join1Result,
  secondary: join1Result,
  condition: filter2
})

var joinedCol = join2Result;

// Each image now as a property called 'before' containing
// all images that come after it within the time-window
print(joinedCol.first())
// Do the gap-filling

// We now write a function that will be used to interpolate all images
// This function takes an image and replaces the masked pixels
// with the interpolated value from before and after images.

var interpolateImages = function(image) {
  var image = ee.Image(image);
  // We get the list of before and after images from the image property
  // Mosaic the images so we a before and after image with the closest unmasked pixel
  var beforeImages = ee.List(image.get('before'))
  var beforeMosaic = ee.ImageCollection.fromImages(beforeImages).mosaic()
  var afterImages = ee.List(image.get('after'))
  var afterMosaic = ee.ImageCollection.fromImages(afterImages).mosaic()

  // Interpolation formula
  // y = y1 + (y2-y1)*((t – t1) / (t2 – t1))
  // y = interpolated image
  // y1 = before image
  // y2 = after image
  // t = interpolation timestamp
  // t1 = before image timestamp
  // t2 = after image timestamp
  
  // We first compute the ratio (t – t1) / (t2 – t1)

  // Get image with before and after times
  var t1 = beforeMosaic.select('timestamp').rename('t1')
  var t2 = afterMosaic.select('timestamp').rename('t2')

  var t = image.metadata('system:time_start').rename('t')

  var timeImage = ee.Image.cat([t1, t2, t])

  var timeRatio = timeImage.expression('(t - t1) / (t2 - t1)', {
    't': timeImage.select('t'),
    't1': timeImage.select('t1'),
    't2': timeImage.select('t2'),
  })
  // You can replace timeRatio with a constant value 0.5
  // if you wanted a simple average
  
  // Compute an image with the interpolated image y
  var interpolated = beforeMosaic
    .add((afterMosaic.subtract(beforeMosaic).multiply(timeRatio)))
  // Replace the masked pixels in the current image with the average value
  var result = image.unmask(interpolated)
  return result.copyProperties(image, ['system:time_start'])
}

// map() the function to gap-fill all images in the collection
var gapFilledCol = ee.ImageCollection(joinedCol.map(interpolateImages))
  
// Display a time-series chart
var chart = ui.Chart.image.series({
  imageCollection: gapFilledCol.select('ndvi'),
  region: geometry,
  reducer: ee.Reducer.mean(),
  scale: 20
}).setOptions({
      title: 'Gap-Filled NDVI Time Series',
      interpolateNulls: false,
      vAxis: {title: 'NDVI', viewWindow: {min: 0, max: 1}},
      hAxis: {title: '', format: 'YYYY-MM'},
      lineWidth: 1,
      pointSize: 4,
      series: {
        0: {color: '#238b45'},
      },
    })
print(chart);

// Let's visualize the NDVI time-series
Map.centerObject(geometry, 16);
var bbox = Map.getBounds({asGeoJSON: true});

var palette = ['#d73027','#f46d43','#fdae61','#fee08b','#ffffbf','#d9ef8b','#a6d96a','#66bd63','#1a9850'];
var ndviVis = {min:-0.2, max: 0.8,  palette: palette}

var visualizeImage = function(image) {
  return image.visualize(ndviVis).clip(bbox).selfMask()
}

var visCollectionOriginal = originalCollection.select('ndvi')
  .map(visualizeImage)

var visualizeIGapFilled = gapFilledCol.select('ndvi')
  .map(visualizeImage)


Export.video.toDrive({
  collection: visCollectionOriginal,
  description: 'Original_Time_Series',
  folder: 'earthengine',
  fileNamePrefix: 'original',
  framesPerSecond: 2,
  dimensions: 800,
  region: bbox})

Export.video.toDrive({
  collection: visualizeIGapFilled,
  description: 'Gap_Filled_Time_Series',
  folder: 'earthengine',
  fileNamePrefix: 'gap_filled',
  framesPerSecond: 2,
  dimensions: 800,
  region: bbox}) 

Savitzky-Golay Smoothing

The Savitzky–Golay filter fits a polynomial to a set of data points in a time-series. The Open Earth Engine Library (OEEL) provides an efficient implementation of this filter that can be applied on an ImageCollection. However, the time-series must be pre-processed so there are images at a regular interval. We use the interpolation technique described in the previous section and prepare a continous time-series without any masked pixels. The result is a new ImageCollection containing images at a regular interval (5-day) and with pixel values smoothed using the Savitzky–Golay filter.

Savitzky-Golay Smoothing

Savitzky-Golay Smoothing

Open in Code Editor ↗

// Aplying Savitzky-Golay Filter on a NDVI Time-Series
// This script uses the OEEL library to apply a 
// Savitzky-Golay filter on a imagecollection

// We require a regularly-spaced time-series without
// any masked pixels. So this script applies
// linear interpolation to created regularly spaced images
// from the original time-series

// Step-1: Prepare a NDVI Time-Series
// Step-2: Create an empty Time-Series with images at n days
// Step-3: Use Joins to find before/after images
// Step-4: Apply linear interpolation to fill each image
// Step-5: Apply Savitzky-Golay filter
// Step-6: Visualize the results

var s2 = ee.ImageCollection('COPERNICUS/S2_HARMONIZED');
var geometry = ee.Geometry.Point([74.80368345518073, 30.391793042969]);

var startDate = ee.Date.fromYMD(2019, 1, 1);
var endDate = ee.Date.fromYMD(2021, 1, 1);

// Function to add a NDVI band to an image
function addNDVI(image) {
  var ndvi = image.normalizedDifference(['B8', 'B4']).rename('ndvi');
  return image.addBands(ndvi);
} 

// Function to mask clouds
function maskS2clouds(image) {
  var qa = image.select('QA60')
  var cloudBitMask = 1 << 10;
  var cirrusBitMask = 1 << 11;
  var mask = qa.bitwiseAnd(cloudBitMask).eq(0).and(
             qa.bitwiseAnd(cirrusBitMask).eq(0))
  return image.updateMask(mask).divide(10000)
      .select("B.*")
      .copyProperties(image, ["system:time_start"])
}

var originalCollection = s2
  .filter(ee.Filter.date(startDate, endDate))
  .filter(ee.Filter.lt('CLOUDY_PIXEL_PERCENTAGE', 30))
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry))
  .map(maskS2clouds)
  .map(addNDVI);


// Display a time-series chart
var chart = ui.Chart.image.series({
  imageCollection: originalCollection.select('ndvi'),
  region: geometry,
  reducer: ee.Reducer.mean(),
  scale: 20
}).setOptions({
      title: 'Original NDVI Time Series',
      interpolateNulls: false,
      vAxis: {title: 'NDVI', viewWindow: {min: 0, max: 1}},
      hAxis: {title: '', format: 'YYYY-MM'},
      lineWidth: 1,
      pointSize: 4,
      series: {
        0: {color: '#238b45'},
      },

    })
print(chart);

// Prepare a regularly-spaced Time-Series

// Generate an empty multi-band image matching the bands
// in the original collection
var bandNames = ee.Image(originalCollection.first()).bandNames();
var numBands = bandNames.size();
var initBands = ee.List.repeat(ee.Image(), numBands);
var initImage = ee.ImageCollection(initBands).toBands().rename(bandNames)

// Select the interval. We will have 1 image every n days
var n = 5;
var firstImage = ee.Image(originalCollection.sort('system:time_start').first())
var lastImage = ee.Image(originalCollection.sort('system:time_start', false).first())
var timeStart = ee.Date(firstImage.get('system:time_start'))
var timeEnd = ee.Date(lastImage.get('system:time_start'))

var totalDays = timeEnd.difference(timeStart, 'day');
var daysToInterpolate = ee.List.sequence(0, totalDays, n)

var initImages = daysToInterpolate.map(function(day) {
  var image = initImage.set({
    'system:index': ee.Number(day).format('%d'),
    'system:time_start': timeStart.advance(day, 'day').millis(),
    // Set a property so we can identify interpolated images
    'type': 'interpolated'
  })
  return image
})

var initCol = ee.ImageCollection.fromImages(initImages)
print('Empty Collection', initCol)

// Merge original and empty collections
var originalCollection = originalCollection.merge(initCol)

// Interpolation

// Add a band containing timestamp to each image
// This will be used to do pixel-wise interpolation later
var originalCollection = originalCollection.map(function(image) {
  var timeImage = image.metadata('system:time_start').rename('timestamp')
  // The time image doesn't have a mask. 
  // We set the mask of the time band to be the same as the first band of the image
  var timeImageMasked = timeImage.updateMask(image.mask().select(0))
  return image.addBands(timeImageMasked).toFloat();
})

// For each image in the collection, we need to find all images
// before and after the specified time-window

// This is accomplished using Joins
// We need to do 2 joins
// Join 1: Join the collection with itself to find all images before each image
// Join 2: Join the collection with itself to find all images after each image

// We first define the filters needed for the join

// Define a maxDifference filter to find all images within the specified days
// The filter needs the time difference in milliseconds
// Convert days to milliseconds

// Specify the time-window to look for unmasked pixel
var days = 45;
var millis = ee.Number(days).multiply(1000*60*60*24)

var maxDiffFilter = ee.Filter.maxDifference({
  difference: millis,
  leftField: 'system:time_start',
  rightField: 'system:time_start'
})

// We need a lessThanOrEquals filter to find all images after a given image
// This will compare the given image's timestamp against other images' timestamps
var lessEqFilter = ee.Filter.lessThanOrEquals({
  leftField: 'system:time_start',
  rightField: 'system:time_start'
})

// We need a greaterThanOrEquals filter to find all images before a given image
// This will compare the given image's timestamp against other images' timestamps
var greaterEqFilter = ee.Filter.greaterThanOrEquals({
  leftField: 'system:time_start',
  rightField: 'system:time_start'
})


// Apply the joins

// For the first join, we need to match all images that are after the given image.
// To do this we need to match 2 conditions
// 1. The resulting images must be within the specified time-window of target image
// 2. The target image's timestamp must be lesser than the timestamp of resulting images
// Combine two filters to match both these conditions
var filter1 = ee.Filter.and(maxDiffFilter, lessEqFilter)
// This join will find all images after, sorted in descending order
// This will gives us images so that closest is last
var join1 = ee.Join.saveAll({
  matchesKey: 'after',
  ordering: 'system:time_start',
  ascending: false})
  
var join1Result = join1.apply({
  primary: originalCollection,
  secondary: originalCollection,
  condition: filter1
})
// Each image now as a property called 'after' containing
// all images that come after it within the time-window
print(join1Result.first())

// Do the second join now to match all images within the time-window
// that come before each image
var filter2 = ee.Filter.and(maxDiffFilter, greaterEqFilter)
// This join will find all images before, sorted in ascending order
// This will gives us images so that closest is last
var join2 = ee.Join.saveAll({
  matchesKey: 'before',
  ordering: 'system:time_start',
  ascending: true})
  
var join2Result = join2.apply({
  primary: join1Result,
  secondary: join1Result,
  condition: filter2
})

// Each image now as a property called 'before' containing
// all images that come after it within the time-window
print(join2Result.first())

var joinedCol = join2Result;

// Do the interpolation

// We now write a function that will be used to interpolate all images
// This function takes an image and replaces the masked pixels
// with the interpolated value from before and after images.

var interpolateImages = function(image) {
  var image = ee.Image(image);
  // We get the list of before and after images from the image property
  // Mosaic the images so we a before and after image with the closest unmasked pixel
  var beforeImages = ee.List(image.get('before'))
  var beforeMosaic = ee.ImageCollection.fromImages(beforeImages).mosaic()
  var afterImages = ee.List(image.get('after'))
  var afterMosaic = ee.ImageCollection.fromImages(afterImages).mosaic()

  // Interpolation formula
  // y = y1 + (y2-y1)*((t – t1) / (t2 – t1))
  // y = interpolated image
  // y1 = before image
  // y2 = after image
  // t = interpolation timestamp
  // t1 = before image timestamp
  // t2 = after image timestamp
  
  // We first compute the ratio (t – t1) / (t2 – t1)

  // Get image with before and after times
  var t1 = beforeMosaic.select('timestamp').rename('t1')
  var t2 = afterMosaic.select('timestamp').rename('t2')

  var t = image.metadata('system:time_start').rename('t')

  var timeImage = ee.Image.cat([t1, t2, t])

  var timeRatio = timeImage.expression('(t - t1) / (t2 - t1)', {
    't': timeImage.select('t'),
    't1': timeImage.select('t1'),
    't2': timeImage.select('t2'),
  })
  // You can replace timeRatio with a constant value 0.5
  // if you wanted a simple average
  
  // Compute an image with the interpolated image y
  var interpolated = beforeMosaic
    .add((afterMosaic.subtract(beforeMosaic).multiply(timeRatio)))
  // Replace the masked pixels in the current image with the average value
  var result = image.unmask(interpolated)
  return result.copyProperties(image, ['system:time_start'])
}

// map() the function to interpolate all images in the collection
var interpolatedCol = ee.ImageCollection(joinedCol.map(interpolateImages))

// Once the interpolation are done, remove original images
// We keep only the generated interpolated images
var regularCol = interpolatedCol.filter(ee.Filter.eq('type', 'interpolated'))


// Display a time-series chart
var chart = ui.Chart.image.series({
  imageCollection: regularCol.select('ndvi'),
  region: geometry,
  reducer: ee.Reducer.mean(),
  scale: 20
}).setOptions({
      title: 'Regular NDVI Time Series',
      interpolateNulls: false,
      vAxis: {title: 'NDVI', viewWindow: {min: 0, max: 1}},
      hAxis: {title: '', format: 'YYYY-MM'},
      lineWidth: 1,
      pointSize: 4,
      series: {
        0: {color: '#238b45'},
      },
    })
print(chart);


// SavatskyGolayFilter
// https://www.open-geocomputing.org/OpenEarthEngineLibrary/#.ImageCollection.SavatskyGolayFilter

// Use the default distanceFunction
var distanceFunction = function(infromedImage, estimationImage) {
  return ee.Image.constant(
      ee.Number(infromedImage.get('system:time_start'))
      .subtract(
        ee.Number(estimationImage.get('system:time_start')))
        );
  }

// Apply smoothing

var oeel=require('users/OEEL/lib:loadAll');

var order = 3;

var sgFilteredCol = oeel.ImageCollection.SavatskyGolayFilter(
  regularCol, 
  maxDiffFilter,
  distanceFunction,
  order)

print(sgFilteredCol.first())
// Display a time-series chart
var chart = ui.Chart.image.series({
  imageCollection: sgFilteredCol.select(['ndvi', 'd_0_ndvi'], ['ndvi', 'ndvi_sg']),
  region: geometry,
  reducer: ee.Reducer.mean(),
  scale: 20
}).setOptions({
      lineWidth: 1,
      title: 'NDVI Time Series',
      interpolateNulls: false,
      vAxis: {title: 'NDVI', viewWindow: {min: 0, max: 1}},
      hAxis: {title: '', format: 'YYYY-MM'},
      lineWidth: 1,
      pointSize: 4,
      series: {
        0: {color: '#66c2a4', lineDashStyle: [1, 1], pointSize: 2}, // Original NDVI
        1: {color: '#238b45', lineWidth: 2 }, // Smoothed NDVI
      },

    })
print(chart);


// Let's visualize the NDVI time-series
Map.centerObject(geometry, 16);
var bbox = Map.getBounds({asGeoJSON: true});

var palette = ['#d73027','#f46d43','#fdae61','#fee08b','#ffffbf','#d9ef8b','#a6d96a','#66bd63','#1a9850'];
var ndviVis = {min:-0.2, max: 0.8,  palette: palette}

var visualizeImage = function(image) {
  return image.visualize(ndviVis).clip(bbox).selfMask()
}

var visCollectionRegular = regularCol.select('ndvi')
  .map(visualizeImage)

var visualizeSgFiltered = sgFilteredCol.select('d_0_ndvi')
  .map(visualizeImage)


Export.video.toDrive({
  collection: visCollectionRegular,
  description: 'Regular_Time_Series',
  folder: 'earthengine',
  fileNamePrefix: 'regular',
  framesPerSecond: 2,
  dimensions: 800,
  region: bbox})
  
Export.video.toDrive({
  collection: visualizeSgFiltered,
  description: 'Filtered_Time_Series',
  folder: 'earthengine',
  fileNamePrefix: 'sg_filtered',
  framesPerSecond: 2,
  dimensions: 800,
  region: bbox})

User Interface Templates

Adding a Discrete Legend

You may want to add a legend for a classified image to your map visualization in your App. Here’s a code snippet that shows how you can build it using the UI Widgets.

Creating a Discrete Map Legend

Creating a Discrete Map Legend

Open in Code Editor ↗

var classified = ee.Image("users/ujavalgandhi/e2e/bangalore_classified")
Map.centerObject(classified)
var palette = ['#cc6d8f', '#ffc107', '#1e88e5', '#004d40'];
Map.addLayer(classified, {min: 0, max: 3, palette: palette}, '2019');

var legend = ui.Panel({style: {position: 'middle-right', padding: '8px 15px'}});

var makeRow = function(color, name) {
  var colorBox = ui.Label({
    style: {color: '#ffffff',
      backgroundColor: color,
      padding: '10px',
      margin: '0 0 4px 0',
    }
  });
  var description = ui.Label({
    value: name,
    style: {
      margin: '0px 0 4px 6px',
    }
  }); 
  return ui.Panel({
    widgets: [colorBox, description],
    layout: ui.Panel.Layout.Flow('horizontal')}
)};

var title = ui.Label({
  value: 'Legend',
  style: {fontWeight: 'bold',
    fontSize: '16px',
    margin: '0px 0 4px 0px'}});

legend.add(title);
legend.add(makeRow('#cc6d8f','Built-up'))
legend.add(makeRow('#ffc107','Bare Earth'))
legend.add(makeRow('#1e88e5','Water'))
legend.add(makeRow('#004d40','Vegetation'))

Map.add(legend);

Adding a Continous Legend

If you are displaying a raster layer in your app with a color palette, you can use the following technique to add a colorbar using the snipet below.

Creating a Continuous Raster Legend

Creating a Continuous Raster Legend

Open in Code Editor ↗

var s2 = ee.ImageCollection('COPERNICUS/S2_HARMONIZED');
var admin2 = ee.FeatureCollection('FAO/GAUL_SIMPLIFIED_500m/2015/level2');

var bangalore = admin2.filter(ee.Filter.eq('ADM2_NAME', 'Bangalore Urban'))
var geometry = bangalore.geometry()

var filtered = s2.filter(ee.Filter.lt('CLOUDY_PIXEL_PERCENTAGE', 30))
  .filter(ee.Filter.date('2019-01-01', '2020-01-01'))
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry))

var image = filtered.median(); 

// Calculate  Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)
// 'NIR' (B8) and 'RED' (B4)
var ndvi = image.normalizedDifference(['B8', 'B4']).rename(['ndvi']);

var palette = ['#d7191c','#fdae61','#ffffbf','#a6d96a','#1a9641']
var ndviVis = {min:0, max:0.5, palette: palette}
Map.centerObject(geometry, 12)
Map.addLayer(ndvi.clip(geometry), ndviVis, 'ndvi')


function createColorBar(titleText, palette, min, max) {
  // Legend Title
  var title = ui.Label({
    value: titleText, 
    style: {fontWeight: 'bold', textAlign: 'center', stretch: 'horizontal'}});

  // Colorbar
  var legend = ui.Thumbnail({
    image: ee.Image.pixelLonLat().select(0),
    params: {
      bbox: [0, 0, 1, 0.1],
      dimensions: '200x20',
      format: 'png', 
      min: 0, max: 1,
      palette: palette},
    style: {stretch: 'horizontal', margin: '8px 8px', maxHeight: '40px'},
  });
  
  // Legend Labels
  var labels = ui.Panel({
    widgets: [
      ui.Label(min, {margin: '4px 10px',textAlign: 'left', stretch: 'horizontal'}),
      ui.Label((min+max)/2, {margin: '4px 20px', textAlign: 'center', stretch: 'horizontal'}),
      ui.Label(max, {margin: '4px 10px',textAlign: 'right', stretch: 'horizontal'})],
    layout: ui.Panel.Layout.flow('horizontal')});
  
  // Create a panel with all 3 widgets
  var legendPanel = ui.Panel({
    widgets: [title, legend, labels],
    style: {position: 'bottom-center', padding: '8px 15px'}
  })
  return legendPanel
}
// Call the function to create a colorbar legend  
var colorBar = createColorBar('NDVI Values', palette, 0, 0.5)

Map.add(colorBar)

Change Visualization UI App

A common use-case for Earth Engine Apps is to display 2 images in a split panel app. Below script contains a simple template that you can use to create an interactive split panel app. Here we have 2 map objects - leftMap and rightMap. You can add different images to each of the maps and users will be able to explore them side-by-side. [View Animated GIF ↗]

A Split Panel App that displays Pre- and Post-Storm Images

A Split Panel App that displays Pre- and Post-Storm Images

Open in Code Editor ↗

// On June 9, 2018 - A massive dust storm hit North India
// This example shows before and after imagery from Sentinel-2

// Display two visualizations of a map.

// Set a center and zoom level.
var center = {lon: 77.47, lat: 28.41, zoom: 12};

// Create two maps.
var leftMap = ui.Map(center);
var rightMap = ui.Map(center);

// Remove UI controls from both maps, but leave zoom control on the left map.
leftMap.setControlVisibility(false);
rightMap.setControlVisibility(false);
leftMap.setControlVisibility({zoomControl: true});

// Link them together.
var linker = new ui.Map.Linker([leftMap, rightMap]);

// Create a split panel with the two maps.
var splitPanel = ui.SplitPanel({
  firstPanel: leftMap,
  secondPanel: rightMap,
  orientation: 'horizontal',
  wipe: true
});

// Remove the default map from the root panel.
ui.root.clear();

// Add our split panel to the root panel.
ui.root.add(splitPanel);

var rgb_vis = {min: 0, max: 3200, bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2']};

var preStorm = ee.Image('COPERNICUS/S2/20180604T052651_20180604T053435_T43RGM')
var postStorm = ee.Image('COPERNICUS/S2/20180614T052651_20180614T053611_T43RGM')

// Add a RGB Landsat 8 layer to the left map.
leftMap.addLayer(preStorm, rgb_vis);
rightMap.addLayer(postStorm, rgb_vis);

NDVI Explorer UI App

Earth Engine Apps allow you to display interactive charts in response to user action. This app shows the common design pattern to build an app that allows the user to click anywhere on the map and obtain a chart using the clicked-location.

Global NDVI Explorer App

Global NDVI Explorer App

Open in Code Editor ↗

var geometry = ee.Geometry.Point([77.5979, 13.00896]);
Map.centerObject(geometry, 10)

var s2 = ee.ImageCollection('COPERNICUS/S2_HARMONIZED')
var rgbVis = {
  min: 0.0,
  max: 0.3,
  bands: ['B4', 'B3', 'B2'],
};

var palette = [
  'FFFFFF', 'CE7E45', 'DF923D', 'F1B555', 'FCD163', '99B718',
  '74A901', '66A000', '529400', '3E8601', '207401', '056201',
  '004C00', '023B01', '012E01', '011D01', '011301'];

var ndviVis = {min:0, max:0.5, palette: palette }


// Write a function for Cloud masking
function maskS2clouds(image) {
  var qa = image.select('QA60')
  var cloudBitMask = 1 << 10;
  var cirrusBitMask = 1 << 11;
  var mask = qa.bitwiseAnd(cloudBitMask).eq(0).and(
             qa.bitwiseAnd(cirrusBitMask).eq(0))
  return image.updateMask(mask).divide(10000)
      .select('B.*')
      .copyProperties(image, ['system:time_start'])
}


// Write a function that computes NDVI for an image and adds it as a band
function addNDVI(image) {
  var ndvi = image.normalizedDifference(['B8', 'B4']).rename('ndvi');
  return image.addBands(ndvi);
}

function getComposite(geometry) {
  var filtered = s2
  .filter(ee.Filter.date('2019-01-01', '2019-12-31'))
  .filter(ee.Filter.lt('CLOUDY_PIXEL_PERCENTAGE', 30))
  .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry))
  .map(maskS2clouds)
  // Map the function over the collection
  var withNdvi = filtered.map(addNDVI);

  var composite = withNdvi.median()
  return composite
}


// Create UI Elements
var title = ui.Label('Global NDVI Explorer');
title.style().set({
  'position':  'top-center',
  'fontSize': '24px'
  });
var resultsPanel = ui.Panel();
var chartPanel = ui.Panel();
var selectionPanel = ui.Panel({
  layout: ui.Panel.Layout.flow('horizontal'),
});
var downloadPanel = ui.Panel();

resultsPanel.style().set({
  width: '400px',
  position: 'bottom-right'
});

var resetPanel = ui.Panel();


resultsPanel.add(selectionPanel);
resultsPanel.add(chartPanel);
resultsPanel.add(downloadPanel);
resultsPanel.add(resetPanel);

// Function to reset the app to initial state
var resetEverything = function() {
  chartPanel.clear();
  selectionPanel.clear();
  downloadPanel.clear();
  resetPanel.clear();

  Map.clear()

  Map.add(title);
  Map.add(resultsPanel)
  Map.onClick(displayChart)
  // Use the current viewport
  var bounds = ee.Geometry.Rectangle(Map.getBounds())
  var composite = getComposite(bounds)
  Map.addLayer(composite, rgbVis, 'Sentinel-2 Composite')
  var label = ui.Label('Click anywhere to see the chart')
  resetPanel.add(label)

}

// Function to create and display NDVI time-series chart
var displayChart = function(point) {
  resetPanel.clear()
  var button = ui.Button({
    label: 'Reset',
    onClick: resetEverything})
  resetPanel.add(button)
  var geometry = ee.Geometry.Point(point['lon'], point['lat']);
  
  var filtered = s2
    .filter(ee.Filter.date('2019-01-01', '2019-12-31'))
    .filter(ee.Filter.lt('CLOUDY_PIXEL_PERCENTAGE', 30))
    .map(maskS2clouds)
    .map(addNDVI)
    .filter(ee.Filter.bounds(geometry))
  
  var chart = ui.Chart.image.series({
    imageCollection: filtered.select('ndvi'),
    region: geometry,
    reducer: ee.Reducer.mean(),
    scale: 20}).setOptions({
      title: 'NDVI Time Series',
      vAxis: {title: 'NDVI'},
      hAxis: {title: 'Date', gridlines: {count: 12}},
      interpolateNulls: true,
      pointSize: 2,
      lineWidth: 1
    })
      
  chartPanel.clear()
  selectionPanel.clear()
  downloadPanel.clear()
  selectionPanel.add(ui.Label('Choose an image to display:'))
  chartPanel.add(chart)
  
  // S2 collection has overlapping granules for same dates
  // Add a 'date' property so we can merge data for the same date
  var filtered = filtered.map(function(image) {
    var dateString = ee.Date(image.date()).format('YYYY-MM-dd')
    return image.set('date', dateString);
  });
  
  var addNdviLayer = function(dateString) {
    var date = ee.Date.parse('YYYY-MM-dd', dateString)
    var image = filtered
      .filter(ee.Filter.date(date, date.advance(1, 'day')))
      .mosaic();
    Map.addLayer(image.select('ndvi'), ndviVis, 'NDVI Image -' + dateString)
  }

  var dates = filtered.aggregate_array('date').distinct();
  
  // Add dates to a dropdown selector
  dates.evaluate(function(dateList){
      selectionPanel.add(ui.Select({
      items: dateList,
      onChange: addNdviLayer,
      placeholder: 'Select a date'
    }))
    })
    
  // Extract the NDVI values as a FeatureCollection
  var ndviFc = ee.FeatureCollection(dates.map(function(dateString) {
    var date = ee.Date.parse('YYYY-MM-dd', dateString)
    var image = filtered
      .filter(ee.Filter.date(date, date.advance(1, 'day')))
      .mosaic();
    
    var ndviImage = image.select('ndvi');
    var stats = ndviImage.reduceRegion({
      reducer: ee.Reducer.mean().setOutputs(['ndvi']),
      geometry: geometry,
      scale: 20
    });
    // Add date as wel as lat/lon columns
    var properties = stats.combine({
      'date': dateString,
      'longitude': point['lon'],
      'latitude': point['lat']
    })
    return ee.Feature(null, properties);
  }));
  
  // Prepare the collection to download
  var downloadReady = function(url) {
    var label = ui.Label({
      value: 'Download CSV',
      targetUrl: url})
    downloadPanel.add(label);
  }
  ndviFc.getDownloadURL({
    format: 'CSV',
    selectors: ['date', 'latitude', 'longitude', 'ndvi'],
    filename: 'ndvi_time_series', 
    callback: downloadReady})

//});

}
// Call the function to build the initial UI state.
resetEverything();

Code Sharing and Script Modules

As your Earth Engine project grows, you need a way to organize and share your code to collaborate with others. We will learn some best practices on how best to set-up your project in Earth Engine.

Sharing a Single Script

To share your code from a single script, you need to use the Get Link button in the code editor. As you click the button, the contents of your code editor is captured and encoded into a URL. When you share this URL with someone, they will be able see same content as your code editor. This is a great way to send a snapshot of your code so others can reproduce your output. Remember that the script links are just snapshots, if you change your code after sending the link to someone, they will not see the updates.

When trying to send someone a link, do NOT click the Copy Script Path button. Sending this path to someone will NOT give them access to your code. The script path only works only on public or shared repositories.

Code Sharing using Get Link button

Code Sharing using Get Link button

While sharing the script using Get Link, you should also share any private Assets that you may have uploaded and are using in the script. You can share the asset with a specific email address, or check the Anyone can read box if you want anyone with the script link to be able to access it. Failing to do so will prevent others from running your script.

Sharing Uploaded Assets

Sharing Uploaded Assets

Learn more in the Script links section of the Google Earth Engine User Guide.

Sharing Multiple Scripts

If you want to share a collection of scripts with other users or your collaborators, the best way is to create a new Repository.

Creating New Repository

Creating New Repository

You can put multiple scripts within the repository and share the repository with other users. You can grant them Reader or Writer access so they can view/add/modify/delete scripts in that repository. If you want to make it readable by Public, you can check the Anyone can read option. You will see a URL in the form of https://code.earthengine.google.co.in/?accept_repo=.... When you share this URL with other users and they visit that link, your repository will be added to their Code Editor under the Reader or Writer folder depending on their access.

Creating New Repository

Creating New Repository

Learn more in the Script Manager section of the Google Earth Engine User Guide.

Sharing Code between Scripts

For a large project, it is preferable to share commonly used functions between scripts. That way, each script doesn’t have to re-implement the same code. Earth Engine enables this using Script Modules. Using a special object called exports, you can expose a function to other scripts. Learn more in the Script modules section of the Google Earth Engine User Guide.

There are many Earth Engine users who have shared their repositories publicly and written script modules to perform a variety of tasks. Here’s an example of using the grid module from the users/gena/packages repository to create regularly spaced grids in Earth Engine.

Using a function from a script module

Using a function from a script module

Open in Code Editor ↗

var karnataka = ee.FeatureCollection("users/ujavalgandhi/public/karnataka");
Map.addLayer(karnataka, {color: 'gray'}, 'State Boundary')
var bounds = karnataka.geometry().bounds()
var coords = ee.List(bounds.coordinates().get(0))
var xmin = ee.List(coords.get(0)).get(0)
var ymin = ee.List(coords.get(0)).get(1)
var xmax = ee.List(coords.get(2)).get(0)
var ymax = ee.List(coords.get(2)).get(1)
// source code for the grid package:
// https://code.earthengine.google.com/?accept_repo=users/gena/packages

// Import the module to our script using 'require'
var gridModule = require('users/gena/packages:grid')

// Now we can run any function from the module
// We try running the generateGrid function to create regularly spaced vector grid
// generateGrid(xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax, dx, dy, marginx, marginy, opt_proj)

var spacing = 0.5
var gridVector = gridModule.generateGrid(xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax, spacing, spacing, 0, 0)
Map.centerObject(gridVector)
Map.addLayer(gridVector, {color: 'blue'}, 'Grids')

License

The course material (text, images, presentation, videos) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The code (scripts, Jupyter notebooks) is licensed under the MIT License. For a copy, see https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT

Kindly give appropriate credit to the original author as below:

Copyright © 2022 Ujaval Gandhi www.spatialthoughts.com

Citing and Referencing

You can cite the course materials as follows


This course is offered as an instructor-led online class. Visit Spatial Thoughts to know details of upcoming sessions.


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